An explanation of the terms used in ship building; observations on the sailing, rolling, and pitching motions; general proportions of length, breadth, and depth of merchant ships; illustrations of the principal lines and sections used in drawing out the working plans of vessels.


Definition of the Principal Terms used in the Theory and Practice of Shipbuilding.

Abaft, or Aft,
toward the stern or hinder part of a ship.
every part of the hull which is abaft the midship section.
the end of any piece of wood which is nearest the stern of the ship.
Aboard, on board,
any thing in, or on the deck of the ship.
buoyed up by the water.
the fore part, towards the bow of the ship.
the after part, towards the stern.
before the bow of the vessel; astern is the opposite term.
the middle of the ship.
two pieces of wood bolted together on the shank of the anchor.
to strike any piece of wood, so as to drive it in its length direction.
a piece of wood bolted on the inside of the main stem, to strengthen and fasten it to the keel.
a plank of the stern, on which the name of the ship is commonly painted.

a frame or timber formed at a certain part of the ship, corresponding to another frame at a different place. There are generally two balance-frames used in the plan, the one in the run and the other in the entrance; these being nearly similar in shape, and placed in opposite parts of the ship, serve to balance the bottom, as all the other frames are regulated by them and the position in which they are placed.
any heavy material, such as sand, stones, or iron, &c. placed in the bottom of the vessel, to lower the centre of gravity and make the vessel stable, so as not to be easily canted or heeled over by the impulse of the winds or waves.
a kind of pleasure-boat, constructed either for sailing or rowing with oars.
a square-rigged vessel having three masts, but without having a mizen-topsail.
the main piece of the capstan or windlass, about which the rope or cable is wound.
long narrow slips of fir, used for fairing or sheering the ship, or drawing the lines by in the moulding loft. A batten commonly signifies a long narrow slip of wood.
large pieces of timber extending from the one side of the vessel to the other, for binding her together and supporting the deck. The midship-beam is the beam immediately at the midship-frame.
a line made on the inside of the timbers at the height of the decks, for laying the ends of the beams fair.
a line drawn on the dead-woods.
an ornamental frame fixed over the windlass, or near the bow, on which the bell is hung.
Belly of a Timber,
is the inside of its curve.
a general term for the main-wales. These are thick planks put round the outside of the vessel.
sometimes mean the curving timbers, or the frames: thus the midship-frame is sometimes called the midship-bend.
are the different angles or twistings of the edges of the timbers or planks. When the edge of a timber forms an obtuse angle with its side, it is said to have a standing bevel; and if it form an acute angle with the same side, it is said to be an under bevel.
the outer part of a ship's bottom, on which she rests when aground.
planks or keels fastened on the bilge of the vessel, for strengthening that part which rests on the ground. Bilge-keels are sometimes put on the bottom, running in the same direction as the plank, that is, in a fore-and-aft direction, to prevent the vessel from heavy rolling, or from drifting to leeward, or the like.
Bilge-ways, bilge-coads, or sliding baulks,
large square logs of timber placed under the bilge of the ship, to support her on the sliders or sliding planks on which the vessel is launched.
pieces of wood or iron which bind or fasten the vessel together.
any pieces of timber for supporting the windlass, or for making the hawsers or cables fast to them. The riding-bitts are those to which the cable is fastened when the vessel is at anchor. The Pawl-bitt is also a strong piece of timber placed vertically at the back of the windlass, and on which the pawls of the windlass are fitted. Winch-bitts are vertical pieces of wood to which the winch is fixed.
are large pieces of timber of about 4, 6, or 8 feet in length, and 16 or 18 inches in thickness, and on which the keel of the vessel is laid.
comprehend a system of pullies.
are pieces of iron or copper, in the form of pins, which fasten two pieces of timber together. Ring-bolts have an iron ring of 3, 4, or 5 inches in diameter, passing through an eye or opening in one end of the bolt; when the bolt merely an eye, and no ring, then it is called simply an eye-bolt. The ring-bolts are much used in ship-building. A few are fixed in the ship's deck or stanchions, for lashing the boats, or any other thing, down to the deck; the eye-bolts are also fixed in various parts of the hull, for hooking tackle, or fastening ropes to.
that part of the ship which is below the load-water line or wales.
the fore part of the vessel above the water.
is to scarph or join one piece of wood to another in a particular manner,
as will hereafter be explained.
are pieces of wood or iron, which bind or stiffen any part of the ship. Diagonal braces are those that cross any of the timbers in a slanting direction.
short triangular pieces of wood used for supporting any thing.
the measure of a ship from side to side in any particular place. It is usually distinguished into extreme breadth, main breadth, and top-timber breadth.
any sudden rise or divergency from a straight or fair line.
large pieces of timber bolted across the inside of the ship's bow.
of a timber, the lower part or joining of two legs or arms of the timber.
are planks to defend the vessel against the violence of the waves or the assaults of an enemy.
a partition. Bulkhead is the name given to the boards or planks which separate one part or cabin from another.
is the computed number of tons of any merchandise that a vessel carries when fit for sea.
or Knight-heads. (See the latter term.)
a piece wood or iron projecting from each side of the ship's bow, and used for the purpose of spreading the foresail in ships and brigs.
is the joining endways of two timbers or planks.
a part of the vessel near the stern, about the surface of the water.
lines used in the plan, to be afterwards explained.

a large rope to which the anchor is fastened.
a slight round upwards.
that which is placed in a canting or sloping position.
a cylinder revolving round a vertical spindle, having levers in it, whereby it is turned round. It is used to wind up any heavy body.
pieces of oak, about 4 or 5 inches square, let into the beams of the vessel at each end, so that they are straight with the upper side of the beams, and lie in a fore-and-aft direction. Between the carlings, are pieces which lie parallel with the beams, called ledges.
vessels or boats which have smooth bottoms, and whose planks are all flush, are said to be carvel-built, in opposition to those which have the edges of their planks overlapping each other, like the slates on house, which are called clencher-built vessels.
a strong piece of oak projecting over the bow of the vessel at each side; these have sheaves in their outer end, through which a rope called the cat-fall is rove, and with which the sailors cat the anchor, or haul it up from the hawse.
driving oakum between the seams of the planks, to prevent the entrance of water.
the hollow formed by the sides and bottom of the ship.
Centre of cavity,
the mean centre of the hollow formed by the sides and bottom of the ship.
Centre of gravity,
that spot in the vessel upon which, were she placed or suspended, she would remain at rest in any position, i.e. she would be freely balanced in any position which she could possibly assume.
Centre of displacement,
is the mean centre of that part of the ship which is immersed in the water. It is sometimes called the centre of immersion, and is the same as the centre of gravity of the mass of water which is displaced by the bottom of the ship.
Centre of percussion,
is that spot in a revolving body (such as a ship when rolling or pitching), where the whole force or momentum of velocity is concentrated.
Centre of motion,
a point through which the axis of a revolving body is supposed to pass.
the inside planks of a vessel.
those which fasten the chain-plates to the ship's side. Chain-plates are iron plates for securing the chain and dead-eyes, to which the shrouds are attached.
Channels, main, fore, and mizen,
are pieces of timber or planks bolted edgeways to the ship's sides, in order to spread the rigging and carry it clear of the rail.
thick planks bolted round the inside of the vessel opposite to the channels, in order to secure and strengthen the top sides of the vessel.
a long sloping mortise, into which a tenon is to be inserted.
to caulk lightly.
a part of the water-way which is left above the deck.
pieces of wood used for filling up any want or defect. At the joints of timbers cross-chocks are used; these scarph on to each timber, and connect the two together. It has long been customary to cross-chock the joints of different timbers. It has lately been proposed in the navy yards to make the timber to butt square upon each other, and insert a dowal half into each. This however, in my opinion, is not preferable to chocking the timbers.
substantial planks put round the vessel on the inside of the timbers; the ends of the beams rest on them. The clamps are commonly bolted through every other timber of the side, and scarphed together with what is called hook-scarphs.
pieces of wood of different shapes nailed or bolted on any particular part of the ship, either for belaying a rope to, or resting a shore against.
when the planks overlap each other at the edges, and form projections on the bottom. Clencher-built vessels are much stronger, in proportion to their weight, than carvel-built ships.
pieces of wood raised round the sides and ends of the hatches, to prevent the water from running off the deck into the hold.
a raised hatch or cover to the cabin-stair of a merchant ship.
Compassing or Compass-timber,
pieces of timber which are incurvated or arched.
Converting the timber,
is the act of bringing it into a fit shape for shipbuilding, by sawing and hewing it into the form required. It is nothing more than finding the proper pieces of timber to suit the different moulds with the least waste, and is a matter of very great importance to the shipbuilder. I have sometimes found foremen who were good converters of the material, and at the same time very indifferently qualified in other respects for carrying on the building of a vessel. I have also seen persons who were very good draughtsmen, and great wasters of the material.
a part of the stern of the ship between the wing-transom and the arch-board. Large vessels have two counters, a first and a second; as the ship of 500 tons, Plate 24.
Counter-mould of a timber,
is the reverse of the same.
a machine for screwing two pieces of timber together.
See Chocks.
temporary beams for keeping the frames at their proper breadth until the vessel is planked, and the proper beams put in.
the foremost part of the ship's head, or main stem.
a curved-line formed on the plan or draft, for determining the height of the bed of the kelson.

a name generally given to slanting or diagonal pieces of timber, as the dagger-knees.
a kind of cat-head for raising the anchor without injuring the ship as it ascends.
a kind of cat-head for fixing in the boat to assist in weighing the anchor.
a kind of block having only three holes, through which the lanyards are rove; the under ones are fixed to the chains, and the upper are attached to the shrouds of the rigging.
the term for the midship section or midship bend; it is always distinguished by this mark ⊕; all the other frames or sections are distinguished by figures, or letters of the alphabet.
the rising of the midship floor-timber from the horizontal.
certain large pieces of timber fitted on the keel at the stem and stern-post, for the purpose of raising the floor-timbers and bolting to the heels of the cant-timbers.
the flats which are formed by covering the beams with plank; these run in a fore-and-aft direction, and constitute the decks of the ship. Large vessels have three or four decks, as the lower deck, the main deck, the upper deck and quarter deck, forecastle deck, poop decks, &c. A flush deck is one which is continued from stem to stern of the ship.
Depth in the Hold,
one of the principal dimensions of a ship. For merchant-vessels the depth of the hold is taken from the under-side of the main-deck plank, at ⊕ frame, to the upper side of the ceiling-plank next the limbers.
Diagonal line,
a line which is inclined to two other lines is the diagonal in reference to these two.
Diagonal ribband,
a piece of wood made or bent to the shape of the vessel's bottom, either in the run or entrance; and its plane lies in a diagonal position from the horizon, and perpendicular thereto. The diagonal ribbands generally reach from the foremost square frame to the stem, or run completely round from the stem to the stern-post.
Diagonal shore,
any shore or support that is not perpendicular from the ground, but is inclined.
a particular kind of mortise.
Douells, Coggs, or Coaks,
cylindrical pieces of hard wood, about three inches in diameter, and the same in length; they are let half into two pieces of wood which are to be joined together. The bolts pass down through the axis of the douells.
Draught of water,
the depth of water which a ship displaces, either loaded or unloaded. The former is called the load-water draught, the latter the light-water draught.
a bolt kept for driving or pushing out bolts. Drifts are breaks in the rails or upper-works.
timber in a state of decay, with white spongy veins through it.

a perpendicular and longitudinal view of a ship. This is also called Sheer Draught.
a name frequently given to the foremost part of a vessel under the surface of the water.

of a timber, the moulding side, i.e. the side on which the mould is applied in shaping the edges of the timber.
not suddenly crooked. A fair curve is one having no quirked or flat parts in it.
False keel, False stem, False stern-post,
or the like, is an additional keel, stem, or stern-post, fixed on the main keel, main stem, or main stern-post, to increase their strength, and make a ship hold a better wind.
two timbers used in the runs of a vessel, which are fixed to the transoms and deadwoods.
is to fit close, or join two pieces of wood together.
are those between the frames.
A Filling
is a piece of wood fitted on a timber, to make up a want or defect. The timbers should not have fillings if it can be avoided, particularly on their outside.
a straight part in a curve.
signifies that the bottom of a vessel does not rise, and is little inclined from the horizon.
a sudden rise up, as the flight of the transoms.
a part of the plan of a vessel.
the bottom of a vessel near midships. In the midship body, the flattest part of the floor is at the flat frame marked ⊕.
a diagonal ribband which is run round a vessel, a little below the floor-heads.
is also a ribband which runs round a vessel, between the floor-ribband and the keel.
large and strong pieces of timber which extend across the keel; upon these floors the frames are erected.
is when two pieces of wood are checked into each other, and their surfaces become even. This term signifies a continuation of even surface.
a sudden rise upwards.
Fore and Aft,
are opposite terms. In speaking of any plank, or thing, which is lying towards the bow and stern end of a ship, and not in a cross direction to her length, it is said to be lying fore and aft.
every part of the hull before ⊕, i.e. the dead-flat frame; and After-body is the hull abaft the same.
a short deck at the bow of the ship.
the fore-end of the keel.
a division of the hold, close to the bow, and is opposite to
which is a part of the hold at the stern post.
of Timbers, in shipbuilding, signifies a number of pieces of timber bolted together, in order to form the bottom and sides of a vessel. It consists of the floor-timber -- two first futtocks -- two second futtocks -- two third futtocks -- two fourth futtocks, and one or two long and short top-timbers on a side. The frames are placed at right angles to the keel; some of our naval architects have proposed to put them at right angles to the load-water line, which is not parallel to the keel, when the vessel draws more water at the stern than at the bow.

a balcony or scaffold, erected for the purpose of standing or walking on; or a kind of additional compartment, formed on the outside of the stern and quarters of large ships; it is called the quarter and stern galleries.
a hole or mortise, cut through the head or cut-water, for the purpose of lashing the bowsprit down to the stem-head.
a course of the outside bottom plank next the keel of the ship.
a name applied to the hinges of the rudder.
is when a timber is formed from a straight piece of wood, so that the direction of the fibre does not follow the curve of the timber.
the under part of the stem and cut-water.
large pieces of timber sunk into the ground, and on which the blocks are laid.
a plank or wail [sic] which runs round the vessel's upper works, a little above the deck. In merchant ships it is called the covering-board, as it lies on the ends of the toptimbers, and the stanchions which support the rail pass through it. The gunwale is also called the Plank Sheer.

is the distance measured from the centre line of the ship, to any of the sides. Half-breadth plane is the name for the floor-plane.
a lever used for turning round the windlass and capstan.
are those which have one of their arms vertical.
pieces of wood fitted to the curve of the bow; they are used to keep the bow to its proper curve, as laid down in the plan.
openings in the deck through which any thing is lowered down into the hold. The fore-hatch is near the bow, the main-hatch is commonly in the middle of the ship, and the after-hatch is abaft the mainmast.
large pieces of wood fixed on the bow, and through which a circular hole is cut, called the hawse-hole, for passing the cable through.
an ornamental part at the bow of a ship.
pieces of wood belonging to the head.
upright pieces of wood crossing the rails of the head, and binding them together.
is the lower end or bottom part of any thing, as the heel of a timber, the heel of a mast, the heel of a ship, that is, the keel and stern-post at the lower end. It also signifies the canting or inclining of a vessel from the perpendicular position.
Height of breadth,
the height to which a ship's side is carried before it begins to incline inwards.
a name for the rudder.
the bending up of the keel of a ship by the vertical pressure of the water on the flat part of her bottom, or the falling down from the first position of the stem or bow, and stern, from not being sufficiently supported by the upward pressure of the water on these parts in proportion to their great weight.
the ends of the planks which butt against the stem and stern-posts.
that part of a ship in which the cargo is placed.
the sides, bottom, and deck of a vessel.

a term sometimes employed when speaking of the scantling or dimensions of the timbers, from the inside to the outside of a vessel.
the inside fastenings and bindings.
that part where one line cuts another.

Jugle or Juggle,
butting the narrow end of a plank on the bow or quarters into another plank without carrying it round to the rabbet; this plank is sometimes called a Steeler or Stawing-strake.

the principle piece of timber of a ship. It extends from the stem to the stern-post, and in a small vessel it may consist of one piece throughout. For those of a larger size, the keel is formed of two or three pieces, which are scarphed together, and laid on the blocks. The other timbers which compose the vessel are erected on it.
Keelson, or Kelson,
and internal keel, placed immediately above the floor-timbers, and bolted down through every other floor and the keel.
a kind of timber-head for belaying to.
a kind of slip or wedge made of dry oak, and used for wedging any piece of wood tight into a mortise, which is larger than the tenon.
pieces of timber in the form of a right angle; they are sometimes made of iron, and are used for binding the beams to the ship's sides, the one leg or arm of the knee being bolted to the side-timbers, and the other to the beam.
are two timbers bolted to the stem, and between which the bowsprit is fixed; also called Bollard-timbers.
Knuckle, or Nipple,
a sudden angle made on a timber by a reverse of shape, such as the knuckles of the counter and stern-timbers.

a vessel is said to be so when she pitches or rolls very much.
the sliding of one piece of timber upon another.
the act of sliding a ship into the water.
signifies that both sides of a ship are not exactly alike.
is the left side of a ship when a person stands with his face to the bow.
Laying-off or Laying-down,
transferring the plans of the ship from the paper, to the full size on the floor of the moulding-loft.
Lean, or Clean, and Full;
the first two signify that the ship is sharp -- the second, that she is not so.
to let in one piece of wood into the other.
are lines parallel to the horizon.
an opening between the bottom of the floor-timbers and the garboard-strake, making a passage to the pumps for the water which gathers in the ship.
Lips of scarphs.
When the sharp points of the scarph is cut off, it forms a lip, by which there is less chance of the points of the scarphs splitting, as they have a thicker point they will hold firm against the opposite chack [sic] in the other piece of timber.
Luff of the bow,
the part near the cat-head.

an apartment for holding gunpowder.
the principal part or piece, as main-mast, main-stay, &c.
Main Breadth,
the extreme breadth of the ship.
is that point where a vertical line drawn from the centre of immersion cuts a line passing through the centre of a ship whenever she is heeled over.
a line which divides a ship into two equal parts from stem to stern-post.
Midship Bend,
a name given to the midship-frame.
a recess or notch made in one piece of timber, to receive a corresponding projection on another; the projecting part is called the tenon.
are thin pieces of fir formed to the shape of the timbers. Moulds for drawing the plans of vessels are thin pieces of pear-tree, of different forms, such as parts of circles, ellipses, &c.

iron pins for fastening one piece of wood to another; they are made of different forms and strengths, according to the purpose for which they are intended. A spikenail is the largest kind, varying from 4 to 8 or 9 inches in length; ribband-nails are large round nails made with round heads -- they are chiefly used for nailing the ribbands to the timbers, or nailing a cleat which requires to be taken off again; clamp-nails are short and thick, and are used for fastening iron plates or the like. The nails which are used for nailing down the deck-plank to the beams are made of copper and tin.
Night-heads. See Knight-heads.

a material made of old ropes, and used for caulking a vessel.
Overhang is when any part of a vessel rakes out, such as the stern.
to run the end of one plank over that of another.
Out of Winding,
is when one part is not twisted from another, or when the surface of a timber is a direct plane.

are iron or wooden rackets; they are fixed to the pawl-bitts, and near the capstan, to prevent the windlass or capstan from recoiling or turning round in a backward direction.
Paint-strake, or Sheer-plank,
the uppermost strake of plank on the vessel, terminating the sheer or vertical curve of the top-sides.
thick plank, or other pieces of timber, firmly fixed between the beams, and which form an opening for the mast, or for steadying any upright pieces which pass down through the deck.
is when the stern is rounded-in below, and finished with a very narrow square part above.
that part of the hinges of the rudder. having a strong pin at the fore-end of the braces, which passes down through a circular hole in the after-end of the braces, which are fixed on the stern-post. The pintles are attached to the rudder.
tar boiled to a harder and more tenacious consistency. When cold, it is quite hard.
a dangerous rising and falling of a ship's bow and stern alternately, owing to the swell of the sea.
a drawing formed by lines bearing positions and proportions to each other, in the same ratio as the different parts of the real or intended building do to each other, but drawn to a proper scale.
a surface perfectly straight in every direction.
Wood much less in thickness than in breadth is called plank; the act of covering the timbers of a ship with this, is called planking.
Plank, Sheer, or Gunwale,
a name for the covering-boards.
the uppermost deck at the stern.
openings in a ship's sides or bulwarks.
a bolt driven through the lower edge of the preventer-plate, to secure it, and thereby lessen the strain on the chain-bolt.
the French name for bow of the ship.

the top-sides of a vessel near the stern end.
a part of the deck from the stern to the main-mast.
a kind of additional cabin projecting without the quarters of a vessel.
stout pieces of oak bolted on the outside of the plank-ends at the quarter-timbers.
timbers in the quarters of a vessel.
to give a curve or line a quick turn.
strakes of plank wrought between the spirkittings and the clamps.

Rabbet, or Rebate,
a kind of V grove cut along the upper edge of the keel, for the purpose of receiving the edge or end of any planks that are to fit against it. There is a rabbet cut on each side of the after-edge of the main stem, and fore-edge of the main stern-post, into which the ends of the plank butt.
a large port or hole formed at the breast-hooks in the bow, or transoms at the stern, for taking in or out cargoes of timber.
Rag-pointed bolt, or Barb-bolt,
a sort of bolt having its point like that of an arrow. They hold very fast, and cannot be easily drawn; they are used for bolting, where a common bolt could not be clinched.
any long narrow pieces of timber put round the deck at a convenient height, to prevent the crew from being washed overboard. The main-rail reaches from the stem to the stern; the taffrail is a continuation of the main-rail across the stern.
the overhanging of the stem or stern beyond the perpendicular line.
-- a new vessel is said to be ramed when all the frames are set upon the keel, and the stem and stern-post are also put up.
to join one line or curve fair with another, so that no flat or quirked part shall be observable at their junction.
opening the seams of the plank with iron wedges, that the oakum may be properly admitted.
Rents, or Shakes,
are openings which take place in timber when much exposed to the heat of the sun, sometimes to such an extent as to render it unfit for many purposes.
is one formed by the extreme of a diagonal and longitudinal section of a ship's bottom.
strong pieces of timber bolted on the inside of a vessel to increase her strength.
Rising floors.
The floor-timbers near the bow and stern are called rising floors, as they are more curving than the midship floors.
Rising line,
a line used in the sheer plan.
the motion of a ship from side to side, occasioned by the action of the wind and waves. This motion is affected in a great measure by the form of the ship and the position in which the cargo is placed. In the theory of the rolling motion, a ship is considered to vibrate round an axis which passes through her centre of gravity. From the action of the water on the cavity of the ship, if the centre of gravity be high, she will be easily overset by the action of the wind or waves; on the contrary, if it be low near the keel, the stability will be much increased, although the rolling will be increased. (See observations on the rolling motion.)
a machine used for steering a vessel.
a name for the braces and pintles of the rudder.
a part of a ship's bottom, abaft the midship body, and under the water.

a piece of wood fitted on the masts of smacks to bear up the inner end of the boom.
Scale out,
is when a vessel has an inclination outwards at the bow.
a miniature representation of the measurements of feet, with their divisions into inches, &c.
the dimensions of a piece of timber.
joining two pieces of timber together, by overlapping the end of one piece over the other, but having both points thinned off, so that when joined they appear as an even surface.
a spiral ornament.
lead or copper pipes, passing through the ship's sides at the decks above water, to allow the water to run off the deck.
square openings cut through the deck.
the joints of the planks.
the bottom part of a timber; the seat of the floors is that part which rests on the keel.
the representation of any solid after it is cut by a plane. The whole art of shipdraughting consists in forming proper sections of a vessel, and reconciling them with each other; the different sections receive their names from the figures which they cut or produce, and from the position of their cutting planes. Thus, a section cutting a vessel perpendicularly, and in the direction of her keel, is called a longitudinal section. If it cut the vessel perpendicularly, but at right angles to the length, it is called a transverse section; because the former may be considered as the conjugate section, in reference to the conjugate and transverse diameters of an ellipse. A horizontal section is one whose cutting plane is parallel to the horizon; and a diagonal section is one formed by a plane which is more or less inclined from any of these former positions.
the name of a chain attached to the bow of a vessel, near the cat-head, to retain the shank and flues of the anchor.
thin boards or sheets of copper nailed on the bottom of a vessel, to protect it from worms.
the curve or bend downwards in the middle of the top-sides, or upper-works of the vessel.
Sheer-plank, Sheer-strake, or Paint-strake,
broad strakes of plank put round the vessel at the top of the timbers. They are commonly thicker than the other planks of the top-sides. On the lower edge of the paint-strake, a moulding is formed, corresponding with that on the edge of the gunwale or plank-sheer.
two spars or masts lashed together at one end, and set up like the two legs of a triangle; to their upper point a block and tackle are attached. They are used for hoisting up the stem, stern-post, the frames, &c.
Shiftings of the planks,
a term used for expressing the arrangements of the planks, so that they may overlap one another with their ends, forming a shifting of their butts, and bind the ship. When English plank is used, the shiftings or overlaunchings of the plank is five feet, or five feet and a half; but when foreign timber is used, they are generally made seven feet, and there are always three strakes of plank between butting on the same timber.
pieces of timber employed as props or temporary supports in shipbuilding.
is the breadth of the timbers; moulding-dimensions is their thickness.
a mark made on the moulds of the timbers, to distinguish the spot where the bevel is to be applied in bevelling the timbers.
Sliding keels,
large pieces of wood, made to lower down through the main keel of the vessel. Vide description of Plate 15.
Sliding planks,
pieces of wood which are laid on the bilge-ways, and slide the vessel into the water when launching.
the inclined or sloping surface of the ground on which the ship is built.
Slip, Mr. Morton's patent,
a frame or cradle, which is drawn up or let down at pleasure into the water, having a great number of small wheels running upon a railway or inclined plane. It is used for hauling ships out of the water to be repaired. When the vessel is to be hauled up, the cradle is let down, and from its having a good deal of iron about it, it has no tendency to float off the railway; -- the vessel is then brought above the cradle, and as soon as ever she bears upon it, the cradle is drawn up, bringing with it the ship, which, by the strength of only a few men, is thus completely hauled up.

The principal object of this invention is, to provide a cheap substitute for dry docks, where it has not been thought expedient or practicable to construct them; and, both in point of economy and dispatch, it has been found completely to answer the purpose for which it was originally intended.

The patent slip, after the extensive experience that has now been had of it, is admitted to posses the following advantages:--

1. A durable and substantial slip may be constructed, under favourable circumstances, at about one-tenth of the expense of a fry dock, and be laid down in situations where it is almost impossible, from the nature of the ground, or the want of a rise and fall of tide, to have a dock built.

2. The whole apparatus can be removed from one place to another, and be carried on shipboard.

3. Where a sufficient length of slip can be obtained, a number of vessels may be upon it at once; and, in point of fact, two or more are often upon the slips already constructed, and under repair, at the same time.

4. Among the other advantages peculiar to the slip, it may be observed, that, every part of the vessel being above ground, the air has a free circulation to her bottom and all around her; in executing the repairs, the men work with much more comfort, and of course more expeditiously; and, in winter especially, they have better and longer light than within the walls of a dry dock; while considerable time is saved in the carriage of the necessary materials. The vessel, in short, is in a similar situation to one upon a building slip.

5. No previous preparation of bilge-ways is necessary, as the vessel is blocked upon her keel, the same as if in a dock; and she is exposed to no strain whatever, the mechanical power being solely attached to the carriage which supports her, and upon which she is hauled up.

6. A ship may be hauled up, have her bottom inspected, and even get a trifling repair, and be launched the same tide; and the process of repairing one vessel is never interrupted by the hauling up of another, -- an interruption which takes place in docks, from the necessity of letting in the water when another vessel is to be admitted.

7. A vessel is hauled up at the rate of 2½ to 5 feet per minute, by six men to every 100 tons; so that the expense both of taking up and launching one of from 300 to 500 tons, does not exceed forty shillings.

A plank is said to have snying when it is much curved or bent edgeways.
small wooden pins driven into nail holes, to prevent a vessel leaking.
the dimension of the twisting or curving of a plank, measured from the edge of a batten or rule-staff. When the snying of a plank is to be measured from the bottom of the vessel, a straight-edged batten, of four or five inches in breadth and half-an-inch in thickness, is applied, quite flat against the timbers; it is placed in the direction of the intended plank, as near as possible without bending it edgeways, (this is termed pending the batten or staff.) You then measure from the edge of the batten to the seam of the plank put on last, against which the other is to fit, and mark the distances on the batten, taking a measure perhaps at every 1½ or 2 feet apart. The rule or batten is then taken down from the timbers, and laid on the plank which is intended to be lined off. The same distances which are marked on the batten are then measured from the edge, and marked on the plank; and after they are all measured off, the plank is lined to the proper curve edgeways. This is called the Snying of the plank.
is a strake or two of plank wrought round the inside of the top-timber, between the waterways and the under side of the port-sills. In merchant ships, there is only a short strake at the bow, and it is sometimes called quick-work.
A piece of timber is said to be square when its sides form right angles to each other.
Square frames,
those that have the planes of the sides of the timbers at right angles to the keel.
Square tuck,
a name given to a part of the after-run, when it ends in a straight plane, which is nearly vertical, in place of the plank running up to the counter.
the property which enables a ship to stand upright in the water, and also to regain that position when the force which has caused her to deviate from it is removed.
Stantion or Stanchion,
a support.
large iron knees fitted between the beams of the upper and 'twixt-decks, bolted to these beams and the ship's side. They are sometimes called iron staple-knees.
crooked pieces of metal used for various purposes.
the right-hand side of a ship when standing aft with your face to her bow.
Steeling-strake or plank,
one which does not run all the way to the stem or stern-post.
a wheel to which the tiller-rope is attached, used for steering the ship.
the principal timber which forms the bow of the vessel, into which the ends of the bow-plank are fixed.
a large knee fixed on the inner side of the apron, and upper side of the keelson.
Steps of the Masts,
a large piece of timber bolted down to the keelson, having a mortise in it, which receives the tenon on the lower end of the mast. Sometimes the step for the mizen-mast does not lie upon the keelson, but rests upon a large piece of timber fixed between two of the hold beams.
the after part of a ship above the counter, and in which windows are made to give light and air to the cabin.
a strong piece of timber, generally extending from the keel to the upper-deck. It fits to the after end of the keel with mortise and tenon, and is fastened by the deadwoods and heel-knee.
Stern-post, inner.
The inner stern-post is fitted on the fore side of the main stern-post, and generally extends from the keel to the under side of the wing transom.
pieces of plank which are bolted edgeways to the quarters of small vessels, to form the mock quarter-galleries.
strakes of planks wrought round the inside at the height of the under side of the beams. They are bolted to the clamps and timbers, and are hook-scarphed. As they are put on edgeways, and serve as a shelf to rest the beams upon, they are sometimes called shelf-pieces.

making projections and recesses alternately on two pieces of timber which are to be fastened together; the tablings prevent the pieces from drawing or slipping upon each other.
the continuation of the main-rail across the stern.
a square projection on the end of a piece of timber or surface, corresponding in size and position to a hole or mortise in another piece, to which it is to be joined.
a name for a plank which exceeds four inches in thickness.
the middle or centre part of the hollow of a timber, knee, or breast-hook.
a lever fitted into the head of the rudder for steering a ship.
the ribs of a ship; the pieces of wood of which the frames are composed.
Timber and Room, Room and Timber, or Birth and Space,
mean the distance from the side of one timber to the same side of the next; or the distance from moulding edge to moulding edge; the birth and space of the timbers is always 1½ or 2 inches greater than the breadth or siding dimension of the timbers, and can never be less.
the forming a kind of tenon on the end of a piece of timber which is to butt against another.
the cubical contents of a vessel, reduced to the number of tons which she will carry. Owing to the various constructions of vessels, and as they are all measured by the same rule, and not actually gaged, some carry more than their calculated tonnage, while others carry less.
Top and Butt,
in planking, mean working the plank in the anchor-stock fashion, laying their broad and narrow ends alternately fore and aft. This is practised, in order to save materials, when planking with English oak.
all the ship's sides above the bends.
timbers forming the top-sides.
the broadest part of a plank worked top and butt, which place is about five or six feet from the butt end.
pieces of fir fitted between the cheek-knees of the head; they are carved with a device corresponding to the figure-head.
large pieces of timber which lie horizontally across the stern-post, and form the buttock; they are bound together at the end by a timber called the fashion-timber.
knees bolted to a ship's quarters and the transoms.
Trimming a piece of timber,
working it to the proper shape and bevelling.
cylindrical oak pins driven through the plank and timbers to fasten them together.
Trim of a vessel,
the proper adjusting of the sails or cargo.
a carved bracket employed to support the carved work over the stern-windows.
the place where the butts of the bottom plank in the after-run terminate; generally a little above the wing transom; and at this place a large moulding is wrought across the counter, which is called the tuck-rail or tuck-moulding.
the inclination inwards of the top-timbers towards the middle of a vessel.

a bevel that is within a square.
to remove any thing out of its proper situation on board a vessel.
the uppermost deck that extends from stem to stern.
a name for that part of the hull of a vessel above water.

a name given to that part of the upper-works above the main-deck and between the main and fore-channels.
the principal strakes of thick plank, wrought round the outside of a vessel, about the load-water mark. They are sometimes called the bends.
a strake of a plank in the bulwarks, put on with small bolts and fore-locks; it can be taken off at pleasure, in order to get the stantions properly caulked.
names applied to certain lines used in drawing plans of the vessels.
a strong piece of wood turning round on an iron spindle, which is fixed into its ends; it lies in a horizontal position across the ship, and is turned round by levers, called hand-spikes.
pieces of wood or iron bolted on the windlass, to save the main piece from being chafed by the cable.
an old method of moulding vessels, now almost out of use, except for boats.
a small windlass.
the uppermost of the main transoms.
a piece of wood fitted into the fore part of the rudder, to prevent it from being unshipped.
Wrain or Wrung-bolts,
ring-bolts used in planking.
a piece of wood used also in planking.

long cylindrical pieces of timber, suspended across the masts, to extend the sails to the wind.

In addition to the above explanations, see Plate X. which exhibits all the principal pieces of timber, and the method of binding and fastening them together in their respective places.

Peter Hedderwick: A Treatise on Marine Architecture, containing the theory and practice of shipbuilding, with rules for the proportions of masts, rigging, weight of anchors, &c including Practical Geometry and the Principles of Mechanics; observations on the Strength of Materials, Hydrostatics, &c. with many valuable tables calculated for the use of shipwrights and seamen; also the proportions, scantlings, construction, and propelling power of steam-ships. Illustrated with twenty large plates, containing plans and draughts of merchant-vessels from fifty to five hundred tons, with mast and rigging plans; plans and sections of a steam-boat of eighty-horse power; and eight quarto plates of diagrams, &c., by Peter Hedderwick.
Printed for the Author, Edinburgh, 1830. 2 vols, 4to, 23×17 cm, (4), viii, 401 pp, 8 plates & 21 folio plates.

Transcribed by Lars Bruzelius

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