An Explanation of the Terms, and of some Elementary Principles, Requisite to be Understood in the Theory and Practice of Naval Construction.

Afloat.—Borne up by, or floating in, the water.

After-Body.—That part of a ship's body abaft the midships or dead-flat. This term is more particularly used in expressing the figure or shape of that part of the ship.

After Timbers.—All those timbers abaft the Midships or dead-flat.

Air Funnel.—A cavity framed between the sides of some timbers, to admit fresh air into the ship and convey the foul air out of it.

Anmidships.—In midships, or in the middle of the ship, either with regard to her length or breadth. Hence that timber or frame which has the greatest breadth and capacity in the ship is denominated the midship bend.

Anchor-Lining.—Short pieces of plank, board, or plate iron fastened to the sides of the ship to prevent the bill of the anchor from wounding the ship's side when fishing the anchor.

Anchor Chock.—A chock bolted upon the gunwale abaft the fore-drifts, for the bill of the sheet-anchor to rest on.

To Anchor Stock.—To work planks in a manner resembling the stocks of anchors, by fashioning them in a tapering form from the middle, and working or fixing them over each other, so that the broad or middle part of one plank shall be immediately above or below the butts or ends of two others. This method, as it occasions a great consumption of wood, is only used where particular strength is required, as in the Spirketings under ports, etc.

An-End.—The position of any mast, etc., when erected perpendicularly on the deck. The top-masts are said to be an-end when they are hoisted up to their usual stations. This is also a common phrase for expressing the driving of anything in the direction of its length, as to force one plank, etc., to meet the butt of another.

Angle of Incidence.—The angle made with the line of direction by an impinging body at the point of impact; as that formed by the direction of the wind upon the sails or of the water upon the rudder of a ship.

Apron—A kind of false or inner stem, fayed on the aftside of the stem, from the head down to the deadwood, in order to strengthen it. It is immediately above the foremost end of the keel, and conforms exactly to the shape of the stem, so that the convexity of one applied to the concavity of the other forms one solid piece, which adds strength to the stem and more firmly connects it with the keel.

Arch of the Cove.—An elliptical moulding sprung over the cove at the lower part of the taffrail.

Ash.—Timber much used in ship-building, principally for ladders, gratings, capstan bars, handspikes and oars.

Back of the Post.—The after-face of the Stern-post.

Backstay Stool.—A short piece of broad plank, bolted edgeways to the ship's side, in the range of the channels, to project and for the security of the dead-eyes and chains for the backstays. Sometimes the channels are left long enough to answer the purpose.

Back-Sweep.—See Frames.

Balance Frames.—Those frames or bends of timber of the same capacity or area which are equally distant from the centre of gravity. See Frames.

Ballast.—A quantity of iron, stone or gravel, or such other like materials, deposited in a ship's hold when she has no cargo, or too little to bring her sufficiently low in the water. It is used to counterbalance the effort of the wind upon the sails; and give the ship a proper stability, that she may be enabled to carry sail without danger of oversetting.

Barque.—A name given to ships having three masts, without a mizzen top-sail.

Barrel.—The main piece of a capstan or steering-wheel.

Battens.—In general, light scantlings of wood. In ship-building, long narrow laths of ash or fir, their ends corresponding and fitted into each other with mortice and tenon, used in setting fair the sheer-lines on a ship. They are painted black, in order to be the more conspicuous. Battens used on the mouldloft floor are narrow laths, of which some are accurately graduated and marked with feet, inches and quarters, for setting off distances. Battens for gratings are narrow, thin laths of oak.

Beams.—The substantial pieces of timber which stretch across the ship from side to side, to support the decks and keep the ship together by means of the knees, etc., their ends being lodged on the shelf or clamps, keeping the ship to her breadth.

Beam Arm, or Fork Beam is a curved piece of timber, nearly of the depth of the beam, scarphed, tabled and bolted, for additional security to the sides of beams athwart large openings in the decks, as the main hatchway and the mast-rooms.

Breast Beams are those beams at the fore part of the quarter-deck and poop and after part of the forecastle. They are sided larger than the rest, as they have an ornamental rail in the front, formed from the solid, and a rabbet one inch broader than its depth, which must be sufficient to bury the plank of the deck, and one inch above for a spurn-water. To prevent splitting the beam in the rabbet, the nails of the deck should be crossed, or so placed, alternately, as to form a sort of zigzag line.

Half Beams are short beams introduced to support the deck where there is no framing, as in those places where the beams are kept asunder by hatchways, ladder-ways, etc. They are let down on the shelf or clamps at the side, and near midships into fore and aft carlings. On some decks they are abaft the mizen-mast, generally of yellow pine or fir, let into the side tier of carlings.

The Midship Beam is the longest beam of the ship, lodged in the midship frame, or between the widest frame of timbers.

Bearding.—The diminishing of the edge or surface of a piece of timber, etc., from a given line, as on the deadwood, clamps, plank-sheers, fife-rails, etc.

Bearding-Line—A curved line occasioned by bearding the deadwood to the form of the body; the former being sided sufficiently, this line is carried high enough to prevent the heels of timbers from running to a sharp edge, and forms a rabbet for the timbers to step on; hence it is often called the Stepping-Line.

Bed.—A solid framing of timber, to receive and to support the mortar in a bomb vessel.

Beech.—Timber used mainly for chocks, etc.

Beetle.—A large mallet used by caulkers for driving in their reeming-irons to open the seams in order for caulking.

Belly.—The inside or hollow part of compass or curved timber, the outside of which is called the back.

Bell-Top.—A term applied to the top of a quarter-gallery when the upper stool is hollowed away, or made like a rim, to give more height; as in the quarter-galleries of small vessels, when the stool of the upper finishing comes home to the side, to complete it overhead.

Bend-Mould, in whole moulding. A mould made to form the futtocks in the square body, assisted by the rising-square and floor-hollow.

Bends.—The frames or ribs that form the ship's body from the keel to the top of the side at any particular station. They are first put together on the ground. That at the broadest part of the ship is denominated the Midship-Bend or Dead-Flat. The forepart of the wales are commonly called bends.

Between-Decks.—The space contained between any two decks of a ship.

Bevel.—A well-known instrument, composed of a stock and a movable tongue, for taking of angles on wood, etc., by shipwrights called bevelings.

Beveling Board.—A piece of white pine board, on which the bevelings or angles of the timbers, etc., are described.

Bevelings.—The windings or angles of the timbers, etc. A term applied to any deviation from a square or right angle. Of bevelings there are two sorts, denominated Standing Bevelings and Under Bevelings. By the former is meant an obtuse angle, or that which is without a square; and by the latter is understood an acute angle, or that which is within a square.

Bilge.—That part of a ship's floor on either side of the keel which has more of a horizontal than of a perpendicular direction, and on which the ship would rest if on the ground; or, more particularly, those projecting parts of the bottom which are opposite to the heads of the floor timbers amidships, on each side of the keel.

Bilge Trees, or Bilge Pieces, or Bilge Keels.—The pieces of timber fastened under the bilge of boats or other vessels, to keep them upright when on shore, or to prevent their falling to leeward when sailing.

Bilgeways—A square bed of timber placed under the bilge of the ship, to support her while launching.

Bill-Board.—Projections of timber bolted to the side of the ship and covered with iron, for the bills of the bower anchors to rest on.

Bill-Plate.—The lining of the bill-board.

Bindings.—The iron links which surround the Dead-Eyes.

Binding Strakes.—Two strakes of oak plank, worked all the way fore and aft upon the beams of each deck, within one strake of the coamings of the main hatchway, in order to strengthen the deck, as that strake and the midship strakes are cut off by the pumps, etc.

Bins.—Large chests or erections in store-rooms, in which the stores are deposited. They are generally three or four feet deep, and nearly of the same breadth.

Bitts.—Square timbers, fixed to the beams vertically, and enclosed by the flat of the deck. Topsail Sheet Bitts are for belaying the topsail sheets to. Riding Bitts, for the cables, are covered with an iron casing.

Bitt-Pins.—Iron or wooden pins, passing through the bitt-heads.

To Birth-Up.—A term generally used for working up a topside or bulk-head with board or thin plank.

Black-Strake—A broad strake, which is parallel to and worked upon the upper edge of the wales, in order to strengthen the ship. It derives its name from being payed with pitch, and is the boundary for the painting of the topsides. Ships having no ports near the wales have generally two black-strakes.

Blocks for building the Ship upon, are those solid pieces of oak timber fixed under the ship's keel upon the ground-ways.

Board.—Timber sawed to a less thickness than plank; all broad stuff of or under one inch and a half in thickness.

Bodies.—The figure of a ship, abstractedly considered, is supposed to be divided into different parts or figures, to each of which is given the appellation of Body. Hence we have the terms Fore Body, After Body, Cant Bodies and Square Body. Thus the Fore Body is the figure, or imaginary figure, of that part of the ship afore the midships or dead-flat, as seen from ahead. The After Body, in like manner, is the figure of that part of the ship abaft the midships or dead-flat, as seen from astern. The Cant Bodies are distinguished into Fore and After, and signify the figure of that part of a ship's body or timbers as seen from either side, which form the shape forward and aft, and whose planes make obtuse angles with the midship line of the ship; those in the Fore Cant Body being inclined to the stem, as those in the After one are to the stern-post. The Square Body comprehends all the timbers whose areas or planes are perpendicular to the keel and square with the middle line of the ship, which is all that portion of a ship between the Cant Bodies.

Body-plan.—One of the drawings of the ship, showing the sections made by a series of vertical planes perpendicular to the length of the ship.

Bolsters.—Pieces of oak timber fayed to the curvature of the bow under the hawse-holes, and down upon the upper or lower cheek, to prevent the chain cable from rubbing against the cheek.

* Bolsters for the Anchor Lining are solid pieces of oak, bolted to the ship's side at the fore part of the fore chains, on which the stanchions are fixed that receive the anchor lining. The fore end of the bolster should extend two feet or more before the lining, for the convenience of the man who stands there to assist in fishing the anchor.

Bolsters for Sheets, Tacks, etc., are small pieces of ash or oak fayed under the gunwale, etc., with the outer surface rounded to prevent the sheets and other rigging from chafing.

Bolts.—Cylindrical or square pins of iron or copper, of various forms, for fastening and securing the different parts of the ship, the guns, etc. The figure of those for fastening the timbers, planks, hooks, knees, crutches and other articles of a similar nature is cylindrical, and their sizes are adapted to the respective objects which they are intended to secure. They have round or saucer heads, according to the purposes for which they may be intended; and the points are fore-locked or clinched on rings to prevent their drawing. Those for bolting the frames or beams together are generally square. Of bolts there are a variety of different kinds, as Eye-bolts. Hook-bolts, Ring-bolts, Fixed-bolts, Starting or Drift-bolts, Wrain-bolts, Rag-bolts, Clevis-bolts, Toggle-bolts, etc.

Bottom.—-All that part of a ship or vessel that is below the wales. Hence we use the epithet sharp-bottomed for vessels intended for quick sailing, and full-bottomed for such as are designed to carry large cargoes.

Bow.—The circular part of the ship forward, terminating at the rabbet of the stem.

Bows are of different kinds, as the full or bluff bow, bell bow, straight bow, flare-out or clipper bow, wave bow, water-borne bow, tumble-home bow, and the parabolic bow.

Braces.—Straps of iron, copper or mixed metal, secured with bolts and screws in the stern-post and bottom planks. In their after ends are holes to receive the pintles by which the rudder is hung.

Breadth.—A term more particularly applied to some essential dimensions of the extent of a ship or vessel athwartships, as the Breadth-Extreme and the Breadth-Moulded, which are two of the principal dimensions given in the building of the ship. The Extreme-Breadth is the extent of the midships or dead-flat, with the thickness of the bottom plank included. The Breadth-Moulded is the same extent, without the thickness of the plank.

Breadth-Line.—A curved line of the ship lengthwise, intersecting the timbers at their respective broadest parts.

Break.—The sudden termination or rise in the decks of some merchant ships, where the aft and sometimes the fore part of the deck is kept up to give more height between decks, as likewise at the drifts.

Breast-Hooks.—Large pieces of compass timber fixed within and athwart the bows of the ship, of which they are the principal security, and through which they are well bolted. There is generally one between each deck, and three or four below the lower deck, fayed upon the plank. Those below are placed square to the shape of the ship at their respective places. The Breast-Hooks that receive the ends of the deck planks are also called Deck-Hooks, and are fayed close home to the timbers in the direction of the decks.

Brig.—A vessel with two masts, and fully square-rigged.

Brigantine.—The same as a brig, but without a square mainsail.

Brig (Hermaphrodite).—A vessel with two masts, fully square-rigged on the foremast only.

Broken-Backed or Hogged.—The condition of a ship when the sheer has departed from the regular and pleasing curve with which it was originally built. This is often occasioned by the improper situation of the centre of gravity, when so posited as not to counterbalance the effort of the water in sustaining the ship, or by a great strain, or from the weakness of construction. The latter is the most common circumstance, particularly in some clipper ships, owing partly to their great length, sharpness of floor, or general want of strength in the junction of the component parts.

Bucklers.—Lids or shutters for closing the hawse-holes, and thus keeping the sea out. There are generally grooves in them, to fit over the chain cables.

Bum-Kin, or more properly Boom-Kin.—A projecting piece of oak or spruce pine on each bow of a ship, fayed down upon the false rail or rail of the head, with its heel cleated against the knighthead in large, and the bow in small ships. It is secured outward by an iron rod or rope lashing, which confines it downward to the knee or bow, and is used for the purpose of hauling down the tack of the foresail.

Burthen—The weight or measure that any ship will carry or contain when fit for sea.

Butt.—The joints of the planks endwise; also the opening between the ends of the planks when worked for caulking. Where caulking is not used, the butts are rabbetted, and must fay close.

Buttock.—That rounding part of the body abaft, bounded by the fashion-pieces, and at the upper part by the wing transom.

Buttock-Lines.—(On the Sheer Draught.) Curves lengthwise, representing the ship as cut in vertical sections. On the half-breadth and body-plans they are projected as straight lines.

Caisson.—A sort of floating tank or dam, having generally both ends similar in form to the bow of a vessel. It is used for closing the entrance to a drydock, and is usually fitted with steam pumps and machinery, by means of which it may be sunk or raised, as required. The bow and stern of the caisson fit a groove at the dock entrance. The orifice in the bottom of the caisson, by means of which the water is admitted and the machine sunk, is called a penstock.

Camber.—Hollow or arching upward. The decks are said to be cambered when their height increases toward the middle, from stem to stern, in the direction of the ship's length.

Camel—A machine for lifting ships over a bank or shoal, originally invented by the celebrated De Witt, for the purpose of conveying large vessels from Amsterdam over the Pampus. They were introduced into Russia by Peter the Great, who obtained the model when he worked in Holland as a common shipwright, and were used at St. Petersburg for lifting ships of war built there over the bar of the harbor. A camel is composed of two separate parts, whose outsides are perpendicular and insides concave, shaped so as to embrace the hull of a ship on both sides. Each part has a small cabin, with sixteen pumps and ten plugs, and contains twenty men. They are braced to the underpart of the ship by means of cables, and entirely enclose its sides and bottom. Being then towed to the bar, the plugs are opened, and the water admitted until the camel sinks with the ship and, runs aground. Then, the water being pumped out, the camel rises, lifts up the vessel, and the whole is towed over the bar. This machine can raise the ship eleven feet, or, in other words, make it draw eleven feet less water.

Cant.—A term signifying the inclination that anything has from a square or perpendicular. Hence the shipwrights say,

Cant-Ribbands are those ribbands that do not lie in a horizontal or level direction, or square from the middle line, but nearly square from the timbers, as the diagonal ribbands. See Ribbands.

Cant-Timbers are those timbers afore and abaft, whose planes are not square with, or perpendicular to, the middle line of the ship.

Caps.—Square pieces of oak laid upon the upper blocks on which the ship is built, to receive the keel. They should be of the most freely-grained oak, that they may be easily split out when the false keel is to be placed beneath. The depth of them may be a few inches more than the thickness of the false keel, that it may be set up close to the main keel by slices, etc.

Capstan.—A mechanical contrivance for raising the anchor.

A Cap Scuttle.—A framing composed of coamings and head-ledges, raised above the deck, with a flat or top which shuts closely over into a rabbet.

Carling.—Timber cut to a rectangular form, and above 4½ inches the smallest way.

Carlings.—Long pieces of timber, above four inches square, which lie fore and aft, in tiers, from beam to beam, into which their ends are scored. They receive the ends of the ledges for framing the decks. The carlings by the side of, and for the support of, the mast, which receive the framing round the mast called the partners, are much larger than the rest, and are named the Mast Carlings. Besides these there are others, as the Pump Carlings, which go next without the mast carlings, and between which the pumps pass into the well; and also the fire-hearth carlings, that let up under the beam on which the galley stands, with stanchions underneath, and chocks upon it, fayed up to the ledges for support.

Carvel Work.—A term applied to cutters and boats, signifying that the seams of the bottom-planking are square, and made tight by caulking, as those of ships. It is opposed to the phrase clincher-built, which see.

Cathead.—A piece of timber with sheaves in the end, projecting from the bow of a ship, for the purpose of raising the anchor after the cable has brought it clear of the water. In large ships, the cathead laps under a forecastle beam, the inner part being called the cat-tail. It is strengthened outside from underneath by a knee, called a supporter. The cathead is iron-bound, and is braced with iron knees forward and aft.

Caulking.—Forcing oakum into the seams and between the butts of the plank, etc., with iron instruments, in order to prevent the water penetrating into the ship.

Ceiling or Footwaling.—The inside planks of the bottom of the ship.

Centre of Buoyancy, or Centre of Gravity of Displacement. The centre of that part of the ship's body which is immersed in the water, and which is also the centre of the vertical force that the water- exerts to support the vessel.

Centre of Effort of Sail.—That point in the plane of the sails at which the whole transverse force of the wind is supposed to be collected.

Centre of Gravity.—That point about which all the parts of a body do, in any situation, exactly balance each other. Hence, 1. If a body be suspended by this point as the centre of motion, it will remain at rest in any position indifferently. 2. If a body be suspended in any other point, it can rest only in two positions, viz: when the centre of gravity is exactly above or below the point of suspension. 3. When the centre of gravity is supported, the whole body is kept from falling. 4. Because this point has a constant tendency to descend to the centre of the earth; therefore, 5. When the point is at liberty to descend, the whole body must also descend, either by sliding, rolling or tumbling over.

Centre of Lateral Resistance.—The centre of resistance of the water against the side of a vessel in a direction perpendicular to her length.

Centre of Motion.—That point of a body which remains at rest whilst all the other parts are in motion about it; and this is the same in bodies of one uniform density throughout, as the centre of gravity.

Centre of Oscillation.—That point in the axis or line of suspension of a vibrating body, or system of bodies, in which, if the whole matter or weight be collected, the vibrations will still be performed in the same time, and with the same angular velocity, as before.

Centre of Percussion, in a moving body, is that point where the percussion or stroke is the greatest, and in which the whole percutient force of the body is supposed to be collected. Percussion is the impression a body makes in falling or striking upon another, or the shock of bodies in motion striking against each other. It is either direct or oblique; direct when the impulse is given in a line perpendicular to the point of contact, and oblique when it is given in a line oblique to the point of contact.

Centre of Resistance to a Fluid.—That point in a plane to which, if a contrary force be applied, it shall just sustain the resistance.

Chain or Chains.—The links of iron which are connected to the binding that surrounds the dead-eyes of the channels. They are secured to the ship's side by a bolt through the toe-link, called a chain-bolt.

Chain-Bolt.—A large bolt to secure the chains of the dead-eyes, for the purpose of securing the masts by the shrouds.

Chain-Plates.—Thick iron plates, sometimes used, which are bolted to the ship's sides, instead of chains to the dead-eyes, as above.

Chamfering.—Taking off the sharp edge from timber or plank, or cutting the edge or end of anything bevel or aslope.

Channels.—The broad projection or assemblage of planks fayed and bolted to the ship's sides, for the purpose of spreading the shrouds with a greater angle to the dead-eyes. They should therefore be placed either above or below the upper deck ports, as may be most convenient. But it is to be observed, that if placed too high, they strain the sides too much, and if placed too low, the shrouds cannot be made to clear the ports without difficulty. Their disposition will therefore depend upon that particular which will produce the greatest advantage. They should fay to the sides only where the bolts come through, having an open space of about two inches in the rest of their length, to admit a free current of air, and a passage for wet and dirt, in order to prevent the sides from rotting.

Channel Wales.—Three or four thick strakes worked between the upper and lower deck ports in two-decked ships, and between the upper and middle deck ports in three-decked ships, for the purpose of strengthening the topside. They should be placed in the best manner for receiving the chain and preventer bolts, the fastenings of the deck-knees, etc.

Cheeks.—Knees of oak timber, which support the knee of the head, and which they also ornament by their shape and mouldings. They form the basis of the head, and connect the whole to the bows, through which and the knee they are bolted.

* Chestrees.—Pieces of oak timber, fayed and bolted to the topsides, one on each side, abaft the fore-channels, with a sheave fitted in the upper part for the convenience of hauling home the main tack.

Chine.—That part of the waterways which is left the thickest, and above the deck-plank. It is bearded back, that the lower seam of the spirketing may be more conveniently caulked, and is gouged hollow in front, to form a watercourse.

To Chinse.—To caulk slightly, with a knife or chisel, those seams or openings that will not bear the force required for caulking in a more thorough manner.

Clamps.—Those substantial strakes worked within the ship, and upon which the ends of the beams are placed when there is no shelf.

Clean.—A term generally used to express the acuteness or sharpness of a ship's body; as when a ship is formed very acute or sharp forward, and the same aft, she is said to be clean both forward and aft.

Clincher-Built.—A term applied to the construction of some vessels and boats, when the planks of the bottom are so disposed that the lower edge of every plank overlays the next under it, and the fastenings go through and clinch or turn upon the timbers. It is opposed to the term carvel-work.

Clinching or Clenching.—Spreading the point of a bolt upon a ring, etc., by beating it with a hammer, in order to prevent its drawing. (Same as Riveting.)

Coaking or Coaging.—Sometimes called doweling. The placing of pieces of hard wood, either circular or square, in the edges or surfaces of any pieces that are to be united together, to prevent their working or sliding over each other.

Coamings.—The raised borders of oak about the edge of the hatches and scuttles, which prevent water from flowing down from off the deck. Their inside upper edge has a rabbet to receive the gratings.

Cock-Pit or Orlop.—Half decks forward and aft, below the berth-deck.

Companion.—In ships of war, the framing and sash-lights upon the quarter-deck or poop, through which the light passes to the commander's apartments. In merchant ships it is the birthing or hood round the ladder-way, leading to the master's cabin, and in small ships is chiefly for the purpose of keeping the sea from beating down.

Compass Timber.—Any timber curved in shape.

Compressor.—An iron lever (bent), having one end secured to the beam nearest the chain pipes in the deck by a bolt, round which it is made to turn. Its use is to check the cable when running out.

Conversion.—The art of cutting and moulding timber, plank, etc., with the least possible waste.

Coping.—Turning the ends of iron lodging-knees so as they may hook into the beams.

Corvette.—A flush-decked vessel, ship-rigged, with a uniform battery fore and aft.

Counter.—A part of the stern — the Lower Counter being that arched part of the stern immediately above the wing-transom. Above the lower counter is the Second Counter, the upper part of which is the under part of the lights or windows. The counters are parted by their rails, as the lower counter springs from the tuck-rail, and is terminated on the upper part by the lower counter-rail. From the upper part of the latter springs the upper or second counter, its upper part terminating in the upper counter-rail, which is immediately under the lights.

Counter-sunk.—The hollows in iron plates, etc., which are excavated by an instrument called a counter-sunk bitt, to receive the heads of screws or nails, so that they may be flush or even with the surface.

Counter Timbers.—The right-aft timbers which form the stern. The longest run up and form the lights, while the shorter only run up to the under part of them, and help to strengthen the counter. The side counter timbers are mostly formed of two pieces, scarphed together in consequence of their peculiar shape, as they not only form the right-aft figure of the stern, but partake of the shape of the topside also.

Cove.—The arch-moulding sunk in at the foot or lower part of the taffrail.

Crab.—A sort of little capstan, formed of a kind of wooden pillar, whose lower end works in a socket, whilst the middle traverses or turns round in partners, which clip it in a circle. In its upper end are two holes to receive bars, which act as levers, and by which it is turned round, and serves as a capstan for raising weights, etc. By a machine of this kind, so simple in its construction, may be hove up the frame timbers, etc., of vessels when building. For this purpose it is placed between two floor timbers, while the partners which clip it in the middle may be of four or five-inch plank, fastened on the same floors. A block is fastened beneath in the slip, with a central hole for its lower end to work in. Besides the crab here described, there is another sort, which is shorter and portable. The latter is fitted in a frame composed of cheeks, across which are the partners, and at the bottom a little platform to receive the spindle.

Cradle.—A strong frame of timber, etc., placed under the bottom of a ship in order to conduct her steadily in her ways till she is safely launched into water sufficient to float her.

Cradle Bolts.—Large ring-bolts in the ship's side, on a line with and between the toe-links of the chain plates.

Crank.—A term applied to ships built too deep in proportion to their breadth, and from which they are in danger of oversetting.

Croaky.—A term applied to plank when it curves or compasses much in short lengths.

Cross Spalls.—Deals or fir plank nailed in a temporary manner to the frames of the ship at a certain height, and by which the frames are kept to their proper breadths until the deck-knees are fastened. The main and top timber breadths are the heights mostly taken for spalling the frames, but the height of the ports is much better; yet this may be thought too high if the ship is long in building.

Crutches or Clutches.—The crooked timbers fayed and bolted upon the footwaling abaft, for the security of the heels of the half-timbers. Also, stanchions of iron or wood, whose upper parts are forked to receive rails, spare masts, yards, etc.

Cup.—A solid piece of cast iron let into the step of the capstan, and in which the iron spindle at the heel of the capstan works.

Cuppy.—A defect in timber, where a portion of the heart has separated from the outside. Frosts or lightning may cause the annular fibres thus to separate.

Cutter.—Properly, a small, sloop-rigged vessel. Certain boats of a man-of-war are also termed cutters, as the first, second, third and fourth cutters of a frigate.

Cutting-Down Line.—The elliptical curve line forming the upper side of the floor timbers at the middle line. Also the line that forms the upper part of the knee of the head, above the cheeks. The cutting-down line is represented as limiting the depth of every floor timber at the middle line, and also the height of the upper part of the deadwood afore and abaft.

Dagger.—A piece of timber that faces on to the poppets of the bilgeways, and crosses them diagonally, to keep them together. The plank that secures the heads of the poppets is called the dagger plank. The word dagger seems to apply to anything that stands diagonally or aslant.

Dagger-Knees.—Knees to supply the place of hanging knees. Their sidearms are brought up aslant, or nearly to the under side of the beams adjoining. They are chiefly used to the lower deck-beams of merchant ships, in order to preserve as much stowage in the hold as possible. Any straight hanging knees, not perpendicular to the side of the beam, are in general termed dagger-knees.

Davits.—Pieces of timber or iron projecting over the side of the ship or the stern, for the purpose of raising the waist, quarter or stern boats. Fish Davits are booms, goose-necked to the foremast, and used for fishing the anchor.

Dead-Eyes.—Pieces of oak or elm, of a round shape, used for reeving the lanyards of standing rigging.

Dead-Flat.—A name given to that timber or frame which has the greatest breadth and capacity in the ship, and which is generally called the midship bend. In those ships where there are several frames or timbers of equal breadth or capacity, that which is in the middle should be always considered as dead-flat, and distinguished as such by this character, ⊗. The timbers before the dead-flat are marked A, B, C, etc., in order, and those abaft the dead-flat by the figures 1, 2, 3, etc.

Dead-Rising, or Rising Line of the Floor.—Those parts of the floor or bottom, throughout the ship's length, where the sweep or curve at the head of the floor-timber is terminated or inflects to join the keel. Hence, although the rising of the floor at the midship-flat is but a few inches above the keel at that place, its height forward and aft increases according to the sharpness of form in the body. Therefore the rising of the floor in the sheer plan is a curved line drawn at the height of the ends of the floor-timbers, and limited at the main frame, or dead-flat, by the dead-rising 6mdash; appearing in flat ships nearly parallel to the keel for some timbers afore and abaft the midship frame; for which reason these timbers are called flats; but in sharp ships it rises gradually from the main frame, and ends on the stem and post.

Dead-Water.—The eddy water which the ship draws after her at her seat or line of flotation in the water, particularly closer aft. To this particular great attention should be paid in the construction of a vessel, especially in those with square tucks, for such, being carried too low in the water, will be attended with great eddies or much dead-water. Vessels with a round buttock have but little or no dead-water, because by the rounding or arching of such vessels abaft the water more easily recovers its state of rest.

Deadwood.—That part of the basis of a ship's body, forward and aft, which is formed by solid pieces of timber scarphed together lengthwise on the keel. These should be sufficiently broad to admit of a stepping or rabbet for the heels of the timbers, that the latter may not be continued downward to sharp edges; and they should be sufficiently high to seat the floors. Afore and abaft the floors the deadwood is continued to the cutting-down line, for the purpose of securing the heels of the cant-timbers.

Deal.—Fir, similar to plank.

Depth in the Hold.—The height between the floor and the lower deck. This is one of the principal dimensions given for the construction of a ship. It varies according to the height at which the guns are required to be carried from the water, or according to the trade for which a vessel is designed.

Depth at the Side.—A term used to denote the height of the rail in plan, or roughtree rail above the bottom of the false keel. The entire elevation of the ship on the sheer-plan.

Diagonal Line.—A line cutting the body-plan diagonally from the timbers to the middle line. It is square with, or perpendicular to, the shape of the timbers, or nearly so, till it meets the middle line.

Diagonal Ribband.—A narrow plank, made to a line formed on the half-breadth plan, by taking the intersections of the diagonal line with the timbers in the body-plan to where it cuts the middle line in its direction, and applying it to their respective stations on the half-breadth plan, which forms a curve, to which the ribband is made as far as the cant-body extends, and the square frame adjoining.

Displacement.—The volume of water displaced by the immersed body of the ship, and always exactly equal to the weight of the body. The light displacement is the weight of the hull only, while the load displacement is the weight of the hull and all it contains.

Disposition.—A drawing representing the timbers that compose the frame, so that they may be properly disposed with respect to the ports, etc.

Dog.—An iron implement used by shipwrights, having a fang at one, or sometimes at each end, to be driven into any piece, for supporting it while hewing, etc. Another sort has a fang in one end and an eye in the other, in which a rope may be fastened, and used to haul anything along.

Dog-Shore.—A shore particularly used in launching.

Doubling.—Planking of ships' bottoms twice. It is sometimes done to new ships when the original planking is thought to be too thin; and in repairs it strengthens the ship, without driving out the former fastenings.

Dove-Tail.—To join two pieces together with a score and notch — the score resembling a dove's tail.

Dove-Tail Plate.—Metal plates, formed like dove-tails, for uniting together the keel and stern-post.

Draught.—The drawing or design of the ship upon paper, describing the different parts, and from which the ship is to be built. It is usually drawn by a scale of one-quarter of an inch to a foot, so divided or graduated that the dimensions may be taken to one inch. It is divided into three parts, known as the sheer, body and half-breadth plans.

Draft of Water.—The depth of water a ship displaces when she is afloat.

Drag.—Excess of draft of water aft over that forward, or the reverse.

Driver.—The foremost spur on the bilgeways, the heel of which is fayed to the foreside of the foremost poppet, and cleated on the bilgeways, and the sides of which stand fore and aft. It is now seldom used.

Drumhead.—The head of a capstan, formed of semi-circular pieces of elm, which, framed together, form the circle into which the capstan-bars are fixed.

Druxey.—A state of decay in timber, with white spongy veins — the most deceptive of any defect.

Edging of Plank.—Sawing or hewing it narrower.

Ekeing.—Making good a deficiency in the length of any piece by scarphing or butting, as at the end of deck-hooks, cheeks or knees. The ekeing at the lower part of the supporter under the cathead is only to continue the shape and fashion of that part, being of no other service; and if the supporter were stopped short without an ekeing, it would be the better, as it causes the side to rot, and commonly appears fair to the eye in but one direction. The ekeing is also the piece of carved work under the lower part of the quarter-piece at the after part of the quarter-gallery.

Elevation.—The orthographic draught, or perpendicular plan, of a ship, whereon the heights and lengths are expressed. It is called by shipwrights the Sheer-Draught.

Entrance.—A term applied to the fore part of the ship under the load waterline, as, "She has a fine entrance," etc.

Even Keel.—A ship is said to swim on an even keel when she draws the same quantity of water abaft as forward.

Facing.—Setting one piece, about an inch in thickness, on to another, in order to strengthen it.

Fair.—A term to denote the evenness or regularity of a curve or line.

Falling Home, or, by some, Tumbling Home.—The inclination which the topside has within from a perpendicular.

False Keel.—A second keel, composed of white oak or elm plank, or thickstuff, fastened in a slight manner under the main keel, to prevent it from being rubbed. Its advantages also are, that if the ship should strike the ground, the false keel will give way, and thus the main keel will be saved; and it will be the means of causing the ship to hold the wind better.

False Post.—A piece tabled on to the after part of the heel of the main part of the stern-post. It is to assist the conversion and preserve the main post, should the ship tail aground.

False Rail.—A rail fayed down upon the upper side of the main or upper rail of the head. It is to strengthen the head-rail, and forms the seat of ease at the after end next the bow.

Fashion Pieces.—The timbers so called from their fashioning the after part of the ship in the plane of projection, by terminating the breadth and forming the shape of the stern. They are united to the ends of the transoms and to the deadwood.

To Fay.—To join one piece so close to another that there shall be no perceptible space between them.

Fife-Rail.—The rails around the several masts, for the running rigging to belav to.

Filling-Timbers.—The intermediate timbers between the frames that are gotten up into their places singly, after the frames are ribbanded and shored.

Fire-Hearth.—The platform on which the galley stands. The conveniences in the galley for cooking, as the grate, oven and coppers (boilers), were formerly termed the fire-hearth.

Flaring.—The reverse of Falling or Tumbling Home. As this can be only in the forepart of the ship, it is said that a ship has a flaring bow when the topside falls outward from a perpendicular. Its uses are to shorten the cathead and yet keep the anchor clear of the bow. It also prevents the sea from breaking in upon the forecastle.

Flats.—A name given to the timbers amidships that have no bevelings, and are similar to dead-flat, which is distinguished by this character ⊗. See Deadflat.

Floor.—The bottom of a ship, or all that part on each side of the keel which approaches nearer to a horizontal than a perpendicular direction, and whereon the ship rests when aground.

Floors, or Floor Timbers.—The timbers that are fixed athwart the keel, and upon which the whole frame is erected. They generally extend as far forward as the foremast, and as far aft as the after square timber, and sometimes one or two cant-floors are added.

Flush.—With a continued even surface, as a flush deck, which is a deck upon one continued line, without interruption, from fore to aft.

Fore Body.—That part of the ship's body afore the midships or dead-flat. See Bodies. This term is more particularly used in expressing the figure or shape of that part of the ship.

Fore-Foot.—The foremost piece of the keel.

Forelock.—A thin circular wedge of iron, used to retain a bolt in its place, by being thrust through a mortise hole at the point of the bolt. It is sometimes turned or twisted round the bolt to prevent its drawing.

Fore-Peek.—Close forward under the lower deck.

Frames.—The bends of timber which form the body of the ship, each of which is composed of one floor-timber, two or three futtocks, and a top-timber on each side, which, being united together, form the frame. Of these frames or bends that which encloses the greatest space is called the midship or main frame or bend. The arms of the floor timber form a very obtuse angle, and in the other frames this angle decreases or gradually becomes sharper, fore and aft, with the middle line of the ship. Those floors which form the acute angles afore and abaft are called the Rising Floors. A frame of timbers is commonly formed by arches of circles, called Sweeps, of which there are generally five. 1st. The Floor Sweep, which is limited by a line in the body-plan perpendicular to the plane of elevation, a little above the keel; and the height of this line above the keel is called the Dead Rising. The upper part of this arch forms the head of the floor timber. 2d. The Lower Breadth Sweep, the centre of which is in the line representing the lower height of breadth. 3d. The Reconciling Sweep. This sweep joins the two former, without intersecting either, and makes a fair curve from the lower height of breadth to the rising line. If a straight line be drawn from the upper edge of the keel to touch the back of the floor sweep, the form of the midship frame below the lower height of breadth will be obtained. 4th. The Upper Breadth Sweep, the centre of which is in the line representing the upper height of breadth of the timber. This sweep described upward forms the lower part of the top-timber. 5th. The Top-Timber Sweep, or Back Sweep, is that which forms the hollow of the top-timber. This hollow is, however, very often formed by a mould, so placed as to touch the upper breadth-sweep, and pass through the point limiting the half-breadth of the top-timber.

Frame Timbers.—The various timbers that compose a frame bend, as the floor timber, the first, second, third and fourth futtocks, and top-timber, which are united by a proper shift to each other, and bolted through each shift. They are often kept open for the advantage of the air, and fillings fayed between them in wake of the bolts. Some ships are composed of frames only, and are supposed to be of equal strength with others of larger scantling.

Futtocks.—The separate pieces of tirmber of which the frame timbers are composed. They are named according to their situation, that nearest the keel being called the first futtock, the next above the second futtock, etc.

Galliot.—A Dutch craft, with a full bow and lofty, round stern.

Garboard Strake.—That strake of the bottom which is wrought next the keel, and rabbets therein.

Goose-Neck.—An iron hinged bolt, with strap to clasp it, used on the spanker, lower and fish booms. The bolt forelocks below a sort of gudgeon.

Grain-Cut.—Cut across the grain.

Gratings.—Lattice coverings for the hatchways and scuttles.

Gripe.—A piece of white oak or elm timber that completes the lower part of the knee of the head, and makes a finish with the fore-foot. It bolts to the stem, and is farther secured by two plates of copper in the form of a horse-shoe, and therefrom called by that name.

Groundways.—Large pieces of timber, generally defective, which are laid upon piles driven in the ground, across the dock or slip, in order to make a good foundation to lay the blocks on, upon which the ship is to rest.

Gudgeons.—The hinges upon which the rudder turns. Those fastened to the ship are called braces, while those fastened to the rudder are called pintles.

Gunwale.—That horizontal plank which covers the heads of the timbers between the main and fore drifts.

Half-Breadth Plan.—A ship-drawing, showing a series of longitudinal transverse sections.

Half-Timbers.—The short timbers in the cant bodies which are answerable to the lower futtocks in the square body.

Hance.—The sudden breaking-in from one form to another, as when a piece is formed, one part eight-square and the other part cylindrical, the part between the termination of these different forms is called the hance; or the parts of any timber where it suddenly becomes narrower or smaller.

Hanging-Knee.—Those knees against the sides whose arms hang vertically or perpendicular.

Harpins.—Pieces of oak, similar to ribbands, but trimmed and beveled to the shape of the body of the ship, and holding the fore and after cant bodies together until the ship is planked. But this term is mostly applicable to those at the bow; hence arises the phrase "lean and full harpin," as the ship at this part is more or less acute.

Hawse-Holes.—The apertures forward, lined with iron casings, for the chain cables to pass through.

Hawse-Hook.—The breast hook at the hawse-holes.

Hawse-Pipes or Chain-Pipes.—The apertures in the deck, lined with iron, through which the chain cables lead to the lockers.

Hawse-Lining.—The lining of the hawse-holes and chain-pipes. The lining is composed of a lead casing, covered with an iron casing.

Head.—The upper end of anything, but more particularly applied to all the work fitted afore the stem, as the figure, the knee, rails, etc. A "scroll head" signifies that there is no carved or ornamental figure at the head, but that the termination is formed and finished off by a volute, or scroll turning outward. A "fiddle head" signifies a similar kind of finish, but with the scroll turning aft or inward.

Head-Ledges.—The 'thwartship pieces which frame the hatchways and ladderwavs.

Head—Rails.—Those rails in the head which extend from the back of the figure to the cathead and bows, which are not only ornamental to the frame, but useful to that part of the ship.

Heel.—The lower end of a tree, timber, etc. A ship is also said to heel when she is not upright, but inclines under a side pressure.

Hogging.—See Broken-Backed. A ship is said to hog when the middle part of her keel is so strained as to curve or arch upward. This term is therefore opposed to sagging, which, applied in a similar manner, means that the keel, by a different sort of strain, curves downward.

Hold.—That part of the ship below the lower deck, between the bulkheads, which is reserved for the stowage of ballast, water and provisions in ships of war, and for that of the cargo in merchant vessels.

Hooding-Ends.—Those ends of the planks which bury in the rabbets of the stem and stern-post.

Horse-Iron.—An iron fixed in a handle, and used with a beetle by caulkers, to horse-up or harden in the oakum.

Horse-Shoes.—Large straps of iron or copper shaped like a horse-shoe and let into the stem and gripe on opposite sides, through which they are bolted together, to secure the gripe to the stem.

Hull.—The whole frame or body of a ship, exclusive of the masts, yards, sails and rigging.

In and Out.—A term sometimes used for the scantling of the timbers, the moulding way, but more particularly applied to those bolts in the knees, riders, etc., which are driven through the ship's sides, or athwartships, and therefore called "In-and-out bolts."

Inner Post.—A piece of oak timber, brought on and fayed to the fore side of the main stern-post, for the purpose of seating the transoms upon it. It is a great security to the ends of the planks, as the main post is seldom sufficiently afore the rabbet for that purpose, and is also a great strengthener to that part of the ship.

Keel.—The main and lowest timber of a ship, extending longitudinally from the stem to the stern-post. It is formed of several pieces, which are scarphed together endways, and form the basis of the whole structure. Of course, it is usually the first thing laid down upon the blocks for the construction of the ship.

Keelson, or, more commonly, Kelson.—The timber, formed of long square pieces of oak, fixed within the ship exactly over the keel (and which may therefore be considered as the counterpart of the latter), for binding and strengthening the lower part of the ship; for which purpose it is fitted to, and laid upon, the middle of the floor timbers, and bolted through the floors and keel.

Knees.—The crooked pieces of oak timber by which the ends of the beams are secured to the sides of the ship. Of these, such, as are fayed vertically to the sides are called Hanging-Knees, and such as are fixed parallel to or with the hang of the deck, are called Lodging-Knees. Knees are now usually of wrought iron; there are several kinds, as clutch-knees, horn-knees, plate-knees, etc.

Knee of the Head.—The large flat timber fayed edgeways upon the forepart of the stem. It is formed by an assemblage of pieces of oak, coaked or tabled together edgewise by reason of its breadth, and it projects the length of the head. Its fore part should form a handsome serpentine line or inflected curve. The principal pieces are named the mainpiece and lacing.

Knightheads.—Large oak timbers, fayed and bolted on each side of the stem, the heads of which run up on each side sufficiently far to support the bowsprit.

Knuckle.—A sudden angle made on some timbers by a quick reverse of shape, as the knuckle of the floor, counter-timber, etc.

Laborsome.—Subject to labor or to pitch and roll violently in a heavy sea, by which the masts and even the hull may be endangered; for by a series of heavy rolls the rigging becomes loosened, and the masts at the same time may strain upon the shrouds with an effort which they will be unable to resist; to which may be added that the continual agitation of the vessel loosens her joints and makes her extremely leaky.

Landing Strake.—The upper strake but one in a boat.

To Lap Over or Upon.—The mast carlings are said to lap upon the beams by reason of their great depth, and head-ledges at the ends lap over the coamings.

Lap-Sided.—A term expressive of the condition of a vessel when she will not swim upright, owing to her sides being unequal.

Launch.—The slip or descent on which the ship is built, including the whole machinery of launching.

Launching Planks.—A set of planks mostly used to form the platform on each side of the ship whereon the bilgeways slide for the purpose of launching.

Laying-Off, or Laying-Down.—The act of delineating the various parts of the ship, to its true size, upon the mould-loft floor, from the draught given for the purpose of making the moulds.

Ledges.—Oak or fir scantling used in framing the decks, which are let into the carlings athwartships. The ledges for gratings are similar, but arch or round up agreeably to the head-ledges.

Lengthening.—The operation of separating a ship athwartships and adding a certain portion to her length. It is performed by clearing or driving out all the fastenings in wake of the butts of those planks which may be retained, and the others are cut through. The after end is then drawn apart to a limited distance, equal to the additional length proposed. The keel is then made good, the floors crossed, and a sufficient number of timbers raised to fill up the vacancy produced by the separation. The kelson is then replaced to give good shift to the new scarphs of the keel, and as many beams as may be necessary are placed across the ship in the new interval, and the planks on the outside are replaced with a proper shift. The shelf, clamps and footwaling within the ship are then supplied, the beams kneed, and the ship completed in all respects as before.

To Let-in.—To fix or fit one timber or plank into another, as the ends of carlings into the beams, and the beams into the shelf or clamps, vacancies being made in each to receive the other.

Level Lines.—Lines determining the shape of a ship's body horizontally, or square from the middle line of the ship.

Limber-Passage.—A passage or channel formed throughout the whole length of the floor, on each side of the kelson, for giving water a free communication to the pumps. It is formed by the limber-strake on each side, a thick strake wrought next the kelson, from the upper side of which the depth in the hold is always taken. This strake is kept at about eleven inches from the kelson, and forms the passage fore and aft which admits the water with a fair run to the pump-well. The upper part of the limber-passage is formed by the limber-boards or plates, which are made to keep out all dirt and other obstructions. These boards are composed of iron plates, or else of short pieces of oak plank, one edge of which is fitted by a rabbet into the limber-strake, and the other edge beveled with a descent against the kelson. They are fitted in short pieces, for the convenience of taking up any one or more readily, in order to clear away any obstruction in the passage. When the limber-boards are fitted, care should be taken to have the butts in those places where the bulkheads come, as there will be then no difficulty in taking those up which come near the bulkheads. A hole is bored in the middle of each butt, to admit the end of a crow for prizing it up when required. To prevent the boards from being displaced, each should be marked with a line corresponding with one on the limber-strake.

Level Lines.Limber-holes are square grooves cut through the underside of the floor timber, about nine inches from the side of the keel on each side, through which water may run toward the pumps, in the whole length of the floors. This precaution is requisite in merchant ships only, where small quantities of water, by the heeling of the ship, may come through the ceiling and damage the cargo. It is for this reason that the lower futtocks of merchant ships are cut off short of the keel.

Lips of Scarphs.—The substance left at the ends, which would otherwise become sharp, and be liable to split, and in other cases could not bear caulking, as the scarphs of the keel, stem, etc.

Lugger.—A vessel having one, two or three masts, lateen-rigged.

Main Breadth.—The broadest part of the ship at any particular timber or frame, which is distinguished on the sheer-draft by the upper and lower heights of breadth-lines.

Main-wales.—The lower wales, which are generally placed on the lower breadth, and so that the main deck knee-bolts may come into them.

Mallet.—A large wooden hammer, used by caulkers.

Manger.—An apartment extending athwart the ship, immediately within the hawse-holes. It serves as a fence to interrupt the passage of water which may come in at the hawse-holes or from the cable when heaving in; and the water thus prevented from running aft is returned into the sea by the manger-scuppers, which are larger than the other scuppers on that account.

Mauls.—Large hammers used for driving treenails, having a steel face at one end and a point or pen drawn out at the other. Double-headed mauls have a steel face at each end of the same size, and are used for driving bolts, etc.

Meta-Centre.—That point in a ship above which the centre of gravity of weight must by no means be placed, because if it were the vessel would at once overset. The meta-centre, which has also been called the shifting-centre, depends upon the situation of the centre of buoyancy, for it is that point where a vertical line drawn from the centre of buoyancy cuts a line passing through the centre of gravity perpendicular to the keel.

Middle Line.—A line dividing the ship exactly in the middle. In the horizontal or half-breadth plan it is a right line bisecting the ship from the stem to the stern-post; and in the plane of projection, or body plan, it is a perpendicular line bisecting the ship from the keel to the height of the top of the side.

Momenta, or Moments.—The plural of Momentum.

Momentum of a heavy body, or of any extent considered as a heavy body, is the product of the weight multiplied by the distance of its centre of gravity from a certain point, assumed at pleasure, which is called the centre of the momentum, or from a line which is called the axis of the momentum.

Mortise.—A hole or hollow made of a certain size and depth in a piece of timber, etc., in order to receive the end of another piece, with a tenon fitted exactly to fill it.

Moulds.—Pieces of deal or board made to the shape of the lines on the mould-loft floor, as the timbers, harpins, ribbands, etc., for the purpose of cutting out the different pieces of timber, etc., for the ship. Also the thin, flexible pieces of pear tree or box used in constructing the draughts and plans of ships, which are made in various shapes, viz.: to the segments of circles from 1 foot to 22 feet radius, increasing 6 inches on each edge, and numerous elliptical curves, with other figures.

Moulded.—Cut to the mould. Also, the size or bigness of the timbers the way the mould is laid. See Sided.

Nails.—Iron pins of various descriptions for fastening board, plank or iron work, viz.: Deck nails or spike nails, which are from four inches and a half to twelve inches long, have snug heads, and are used for fastening planks and the flat of the decks. Weight nails are similar to deck nails, but not so fine, have square heads, and are used for fastening cleats, etc. Ribband nails are similar to weight nails, with this difference — that they have large round heads, so as to be more easily drawn. They are used for fastening the ribbands, etc. Clamp nails are short, stout nails, with large heads, for fastening iron clamps. Port nails, double and single, are similar to clamp nails, and used for fastening iron work. Rudder nails are also similar, but used chiefly for fastening the pintles and braces. Filling nails of cast iron were formerly driven very thick in the bottom planks, instead of copper sheathing; while smaller nails were used to fasten wood sheathing on the ship's bottom, to preserve the plank and prevent the filling nails from tearing it too much.* Nails of sorts are 4, 6, 8, 10, 24, 30 and 40-penny nails, all of different lengths, and used for nailing boards, etc. Scupper nails are short nails, with very broad heads, used to nail the flaps of the scuppers. Lead nails are small round-headed nails, for nailing lead. Flat nails are small, sharp-pointed nails, with flat, thin heads, for nailing the scarphs of moulds. Sheathing nails, for nailing copper sheathing, are of metal, cast in moulds, about one inch and a quarter long; the heads are flat on the upper side and countersunk below; the upper side is polished to obviate the adhesion of weeds. Boat nails, used by boat-builders, are of various lengths, generally rose-headed, square at the points, and made both of copper and iron.

Nog.—A short treenail that projects, to keep in its place any timber, or that is driven in to fasten the heels of shores, etc.

Oakum.—Old rope, untwisted and loosened like hemp, in order to be used in caulking.

To Over—Launch.—To run the butt of one plank to a certain distance beyond the next butt above or beneath it, in order to make stronger work.

Paddle-Beams.—Two large beams extending out from the sides of paddle-wheel steamers sufficiently far to receive the spring beams, which are dovetailed to them. Frames are thus formed on which the paddle-boxes are erected. These beams are secured with large hanging-knees, both inside and out — those on the outside being formed with spurs.

Palleting.—A slight platform, made above the bottom of the magazine, to keep the powder-tanks from moisture.

Palls.—Stout pieces of iron, so placed near a capstan or windlass as to prevent a recoil, which would overpower the men at the bars when heaving.

Partners.—Those pieces of plank, etc., fitted into a rabbet in the mast or capstan carlings, for the purpose of wedging the mast and steadying the capstan. Also any plank that is thick, or above the rest of the deck, for the purpose of steadying whatever passes through the deck, as the pumps, bowsprit, etc.

To Pay.—To lay on a coat of tar, etc., with a mop or brush, in order to preserve the wood and keep out water. When one or more pieces are scarphed together, as the beams, etc., the inside of the scarphs are payed with tar as a preservative, and the seams, after they are caulked, are payed with pitch to keep the water from the oakum, etc.

Pink.—A ship with a very narrow, round stern; whence all vessels, however small, having their sterns fashioned in this manner, are said to be pink-sterned.

Pintles.—Straps of mixed metal or of iron, fastened on the rudder in the same manner as the braces on the stern-post, having a stout pin or hook at the ends, with the points downward, to enter in and rest upon the braces on which the rudder traverses or turns, as upon hinges, from side to side. Sometimes one or two are shorter than the rest, and work in a socket-brace, whereby the rudder turns easier. The latter are called dumb-pintles. Some are bushed.

Pitch.—Tar, boiled to a harder and more tenacious substance.

Pitching.—The inclination or vibration of the ship lengthwise about her centre of gravity, or the motion by which she plunges her head and after part alternately into the hollow of the sea. This is a very dangerous motion, and when considerable not only retards the ship's way, but endangers the masts and strains the vessel.

Plank.—All timber from one and a half to four inches in thickness has this name given to it, except fir, which, to three inches in thickness, is frequently called deal.

Planking.—Covering the outside of the timbers with plank, sometimes quaintly called skinning, the plank being the outer coating when the vessel is not sheathed.

Plank-Sheers, or Plank-Sheer.—The pieces of plank laid horizontally over the timber-heads of the quarter deck and forecastle, for the purpose of covering the top of the side; hence sometimes called covering-boards.

Point-Velique.—That point where, in a direct course, the centre of effort of all the sails should be found.

Poppets.—Those pieces (mostly of pine or fir) which are fixed perpendicularly between the ship's bottom and the bilgeways, at the fore and aftermost parts of the ship, to support her in launching.

Port-Stopper or Shutter.—The heavy masses of iron used to close the ports of an iron-clad.

Preventer-Bolts.—The bolts passing through the lower end of the preventer-plates, to assist the chain-bolts in heavy strains.

Preventer-Plates.—Short plates of iron bolted to the side at the lower part of the chains, as extra security.

Pump.—The machine fitted in the wells of ships to draw water out of the hold.

Pump Cisterns.—Cisterns fixed over the heads of the pumps to receive the water until it is conveyed through the sides of the ship by the pump-dales.

Pump-Dales.—Pipes fitted to the cisterns to convey the water from them through the ship's sides.

Quarter Galleries.—The projections from the quarters abaft, fitted with sashes and ballusters, and intended both for convenience and ornament to the after part of the ship.

Quick-Work.—A term given to the strakes which shut in between the spirketing and the clamps. By quick-work was formerly meant all that part of a merchant vessel below the level of the water when she is laden.

To Quicken.—To give anything a greater curve. For instance, "To quicken the sheer" is to shorten the radius by which the curve is struck. This term is therefore opposed to straightening the sheer.

Rabbet.—A joint made by a groove or channel in a piece of timber, cut for the purpose of receiving and securing the edge or ends of the planks, as the planks of the bottom into the keel, stem or stern-post, or the edge of one plank into another.

Rag-Bolt.—A sort of bolt having its point jagged or barbed, to make it hold the more securely.

Rake.—The overhanging of the stern or stern beyond a perpendicular with the keel, or any part or thing that forms an obtuse angle with the horizon.

Ram-Line.—A small rope or line, sometimes used for the purpose of forming the sheer or hang of the decks, for setting the beams fair, etc.

Razing.—The act of marking by a mould on a piece of timber, or any marks made by a tool called a razing-knife or scriber.

Rate.—The denomination of different classes of ships of war according to their tonnage, weight of metal, etc.

To Reconcile.—To make one piece of work answer fair with the moulding or shape of the adjoining piece, and more particularly in the reversion of curves.

Reeming.—A term used by caulkers for opening the seams of the planks, that the oakum may be more readily admitted.

Reeming-Irons.—The large irons used by caulkers in opening the seams.

Rends.—Large open splits or shakes in timber, particularly in plank, occasioned by its being exposed to the wind or sun, etc.

Ribbands.—The longitudinal pieces of yellow pine or fir, about five inches square, nailed to the timbers of the square-body (those of the same description in the cant-body being shaped by a mould, and called harpins), to keep the body of the ship together and in its proper shape until the plank is brought on. The shores are placed beneath them. They are removed entirely when the planking comes on. The difference between cant-ribbands and square or horizontal ribbands is, that the latter are only ideal, and used in laying-off.

Ribband-Lines.—The same with diagonal lines.

Rising.—A term derived from the shape of a ship's bottom in general, which gradually narrows or becomes sharper toward the stem and the stern-post. On this account it is that the floor toward the extremities of the ship is raised or lifted above the keel; otherwise the shape would be so very acute as not to be provided from timber with sufficient strength in the middle or cutting-down. The floor timbers forward and abaft, with regard to their general form and arrangement, are therefore gradually lifted or raised upon a solid body of wood, called the dead or rising wood, which must, of course, have more or less rising as the body of the ship assumes more or less fullness or capacity. See Dead Rising.

The Rising of Boats is a narrow strake of board fastened inside to support the thwarts.

Rising Floors.—The floors forward and abaft, which, on account of the rising of the body, are the most difficult to be obtained, as they must be deeper in the throat or at the cutting-down to preserve strength.

Rising-Line.—An elliptical line, drawn on the plan of elevation, to determine the sweep of the floor-heads throughout the ship's length, which accordingly ascertains the shape of the bottom with regard to its being full or sharp.

Rolling.—That motion by which a ship vibrates from side to side. Rolling is therefore a sort of revolution about an imaginary axis, passing through the centre of gravity of the ship; so that the nearer the centre of gravity is to the keel the more violent will be the roll, because the centre about which the vibrations are made is placed so low in the bottom that the resistance made by the keel to the volume of water which it displaces in rolling bears very little proportion to the force of the vibration above the centre of gravity, the radius of which extends as high as the mast-heads. But if the centre of gravity is placed higher above the keel, the radius of the vibration will not only be diminished, but such an additional force to oppose the motion of rolling will be communicated to that part of the ship's bottom as may contribute to diminish this novement, considerably. It may be observed that with respect to the formation of a ship's body that shape which approaches nearest to a circle is the most liable to roll, as it is evident that if this be agitated in the water it will have nothing to restrain it, because the rolling or rotation about its centre displaces no more water than when it remains upright; and hence it becomes necessary to increase the depth of the keel, the rising of the floors and the deadwood afore and abaft.

Room-and-Space.—The distance from the moulding edge of one timber to the moulding edge of the next timber, which is always equal to the breadth of two timbers, and two to four inches more. The room and space of all ships that have ports should be so disposed that the scantling of the timber on each side of the lower ports and the size of the ports fore and aft may be equal to the distance of two rooms and spaces.

Roughtree Rails.—In men-of-war, the broad plank running fore and aft, covering the heads of the top-timbers, thus forming the bottom of the hammock netting. In merchant vessels, the rails along the waist and quarters, nearly breast high, to prevent persons from falling overboard. This term originated from the practice in merchant vessels of carrying their rough or spare gear in crutch-irons along their waist.

Rudder.—The machine by which the ship is steered.

Rudder-Chocks.—Large pieces of fir to fay or fill up the excavation on the side of the rudder in the rudder-hole, so that the helm being in midships the rudder may be fixed; and supposing the tiller broke, another might thus be replaced.

Run.—The narrowing of the ship abaft, as of the floor toward the stern-post, where it becomes no broader than the post itself. This term is also used to signify the running or drawing of a line on the ship or mould-loft floor, as "to run the wale-line," or deck-line, etc.

Sampson-Knee, or Bitt Standard.—A knee used to strengthen the riding bitts.

Scantling.—The dimensions given for the timbers, planks, etc. Likewise all quartering under five inches square, which is termed scantling; all above that size is called carling.

Scarphing.—The letting of one piece of timber or plank into another with a lap, in such a manner that both may appear as one solid and even surface, as keel-pieces, stem-pieces, clamps, etc.

Schooner.—A vessel with two or three masts, with fore-and-aft sails set on gaffs. A topsail schooner has a fore-topsail, and sometimes a fore-topgallant sail.

Scuppers.—Lead pipes let through the ship's side to convey the water from the decks.

Scuttle.—An opening in the deck smaller than a hatchway.

Seams.—The openings between the edges of the planks when wrought.

Seasoning.—A term applied to a ship kept standing a certain time after she is completely framed and dubbed out for planking, which should never be less than six months, when circumstances will permit. Seasoned plank or timber is such as has been cut down and sawed out one season at least, particularly when thoroughly dry and not liable to shrink.

Seating.—That part of the floor which fays on the deadwood, and of a transom which fays against the post.

Sending or 'Scending.—The act of pitching violently into the hollows or intervals of the waves.

Setting or Setting-to.—The act of making the planks, etc., fay close to the timbers, by driving wedges between the plank, etc., and a wrain staff. Hence we say, "set or set away," meaning to exert more strength. The power or engine used for the purpose of setting is called a Sett, and is composed of two ring-bolts and a wrain staff, cleats and lashings.

Shaken or Shaky.—A natural defect in plank or timber when it is full of splits or clefts, and will not bear fastening or caulking.

Sheathing.—A thin sort of doubling or casing of yellow pine board or sheet copper, and sometimes of both, over the ship's bottom, to protect the planks from worms, etc. Tar and hair, or brown paper dipped in tar and oil, is laid between the sheathing and the bottom.

Sheer.—The longitudinal curve or hanging of a ship's side in a fore-and-aft direction.

Sheer-Draught.—The plan of elevation of a ship, whereon is described the outboard works, as the wales, sheer-rails, ports, drifts, head, quarters, post and stem, etc., the hang of each deck inside, the height of the water-lines, etc.

Sheer-Strake.—The strake or strakes wrought in the topside, of which the upper edge is wrought well with the top-timber line or top of the side, and the lower edge kept well with the upper part of the upper deck ports in midships, so as to be continued whole fore and aft, and not cut by the ports. It forms the chief strength of the upper part of the topside, and is therefore always worked thicker than the other strakes, and scarphed with hook and butt between the drifts.

Shelf.—Timbers worked fore and aft, in some ships, for the beams of the several decks to rest on.

Shift.—A term applied to the disposition of the butts or scarphs of plank or timber, that they may over-launch each other without a reduction in length, so as to gain the most strength.

Siding or Sided.—The size or dimensions of timber the contrary way to the moulding or moulded side.

Sills or Cills.—The short plank forming the upper and lower parts of the ports.

Sirmarks.—The different places marked upon the moulds where the respective bevelings are to be applied, as the lower sirmark, floor sirmark, etc.

Skeg.—The after end of the keel, or the part on which the stern-post rests. The iron shoe on which the heel of an equipoise rudder rests.

Slices.—Wedges used in connection with the poppets in launching.

Sliding Planks are the planks upon which the bilgeways slide in launching.

Slip.—The foundation laid for the purpose of building the ship upon and launching her.

To Snape.—To hance or bevel the end of anything so as to fay upon an inclined plane.

Snying.—A term applied to planks when their edges round or curve upward. The great sny occasioned in full bows or buttocks is only to be prevented by introducing steelers.

Specific Gravity.—The comparative difference in the weight or gravity of two bodies of equal bulk; hence called also relative or comparative gravity, because we judge of it by comparing one body with another.


Lead 11,325 Sea Water 1030
Fine Copper 9000 Tar 1015
Gun Metal 8784 River Water 1009
Fine Brass 8350 Rain Water 1000
Wrought Iron from 7827 to 7645 Oak 925
Cast Iron 7425 Ash 800
Roman Cement 1800 White Oak 714
Sand 1520 Beech 700
Lignum Vitae 1327 Elm 600
Ebony 1177 Fir 548
Pitch 1150 Norway Pine 514
Rosin 1100 Yellow Pine 451
Mahogany 1063 Cork 240
Box Wood 1030 Common Air 1.232

These numbers being the weight of a cubic foot, or 1728 cubic inches, of each of the bodies in avoirdupois ounces, by proportion the quantity in any other weight, or the weight of any other quantity, may be readily known.

For example.—Required the content of an irregular piece of oak, which weighs 76 lbs., or 1216 oz.

Sp. gr. oz. wt. oz. cub. in. cub. in.
Here as 925 : 1216 :: 1728 : 2271 = 1. ft. 543 inches cubic, the contents.

Spirketinq.—A thick strake or strakes wrought withinside upon the ends of the beams or waterways. In ships that have ports, the spirketing reaches from the waterways to the upper side of the lower sill, which is sometimes of two strakes, wrought anchor-stock fashion; in this case, the planks should always be such as will work as broad as possible, admitting the butts be about six inches broad.

Sprung.—A term indicating that plank, etc., is strained so much in working as to crack or fly open.

Spurnwater.—A channel left above the ends of a deck, to prevent water from coming any further.

Square-Body.—The figure which comprehends all the timbers whose areas or planes are perpendicular to the keel, which is all that portion of a ship between the cant-bodies. See Bodies.

Square-Timbers.—The timbers which stand square with, or perpendicular to, the keel.

Square-Tuck.—A name given to the after part of a ship's bottom when terminated in the same direction up and down as the wing-transom, the planks of the bottom ending in a rabbet at the foreside of the fashion-piece; whereas ships with a buttock are round or circular, and the planks of the bottom end upon the wing-transom.

Stability.—That quality which enables a ship to keep herself steadily in the water without rolling or pitching. Stability in the construction of a ship is only to be acquired by fixing the centre of gravity at a certain distance below the meta-centre, because the stability of the vessel increases with the altitude of the ineta-centre above the centre of gravity. But when the meta-centre coincides with the centre of gravity, the vessel has no tendency whatever to remove out of the situation into which it may be put. Thus, if the vessel be inclined either to the starboard or port side, it will remain in that position till a new force is impressed upon it. In this case, therefore, the vessel would not be able to carry sail, and is consequently unfit for the purposes of navigation. If the meta-centre falls below the common centre of gravity, the vessel will immediately overset.

Stanchions.—Upright posts of timber or iron to support the beams, decks, rails, etc.

Steeler.—A name given to the foremost or aftermost plank, in a strake which drops short of the stem and stern-post, and of which the end or butt nearest the rabbet is worked very narrow and well forward or aft. Their use is to take out the snying edge occasioned by a full bow or sudden circular buttock.

Stem.—The main timber at the fore part of the ship, formed by the combination of several pieces into a curved shape and erected vertically to receive the ends of the bow-planks, which are united to it by means of a rabbet. Its lower end scarphs or boxes into the keel, through which the rabbet is also carried, and the bottom unites in the same manner.

Stemson.—A piece of compass timber, wrought on the after part of the apron inside, the lower end of which scarphs into the keelson. Its upper end is continued as high as the middle or upper deck, and its use is to succor the scarphs of the apron, as it does those of the stem.

Steps of the Masts.—The steps into which the heels of the masts are fixed are large pieces of timber. Those for the main and foremasts are fixed across the keelson, and that for the mizzen-mast upon the lower deck-beams. The holes or mortises into which the masts step should have sufficient wood on each side to accord in strength with the tenon left at the heel of the mast, and the hole should be cut rather less than the tenon, as an allowance for shrinking.

Steps for the Ship's Side.—The pieces of quartering, with mouldings, nailed to the sides amidship, about nine inches asunder, from the wales upward, for the convenience of persons getting on board.

Stern Frame.—The strong frame of timber composed of the stern-post, transoms and fashion-pieces, which form the basis of the whole stern.

Stern-Post.—The principal piece of timber in the stern frame on which the rudder is hung, and to which the transoms are bolted. It therefore terminates the ship below the wing-transom, and its lower end is tenoned into the keel.

Stiff.—Stable; steady under canvas.

Stiving.—The elevation of a ship's cathead or bowsprit, or the angle which either makes with the horizon; generally called steeve.

Stoppings-Up.—The poppets, timber, etc., used to fill up the vacancy between the upper side of the bilgeways and the ship's bottom, for supporting her when launching.

Straight of Breadth.—The space before and abaft dead-flat, in which the ship is of the same uniform breadth, or of the same breadth as at ⊗ or deadflat. See Dead-flat.

Strake.—One breadth of plank wrought from one end of the ship to the other, either within or outboard.

Tabling.—Letting one piece of timber into another by alternate scores or projections from the middle, so that it cannot be drawn asunder either lengthwise or sidewise.

Taffarel or Taff-Rail.—The upper part of the ship's stern, usually ornamented with carved work or mouldings, the ends of which unite to the quarterpieces.

Tasting of Plank or Timber.—Chipping it with an adze, or boring it with a small auger, for the purpose of ascertaining its quality or defects.

To Teach.—A term applied to the direction that any line, etc., seems to point out. Thus we say, "Let the line or mould teach fair to such a spot, raze," etc.

Tenon.—The square part at the end of one piece of timber, diminished so as to fix in a hole of another piece, called a mortise, for joining or fastening the two pieces together.

Thickstuff.—A name for sided timber exceeding four inches, but not being more than twelve inches in thickness.

Tholes, or Thole-Pins.—The battens or pins forming the row-locks of a boat.

Throat.—The inside of knee timber at the middle or turn of the arms. Also the midship part of the floor timbers.

Thwarts.—The seats in a boat on which the oarsmen sit.

Timber.—(Material for ship-building.) Timber is generally distinguished into rough, square or hewn, sided and converted timber. Rough timber is the timber to its full size as felled, with lop, top and bark off. Hewn timber is timber squared for measurement. Sided timber is the tree of the full size, one way, as it is felled, but with slabs taken off from two of its sides and made straight; on the other side, at the middle of the tree, it must be one-eighth of its depth, or siding more than its siding between the wanes. Converted timber is timber cut for different purposes, and distinguished into thickstuff, plank, board, carling and scantling. The timber in most general use in this country is live-oak, white oak, yellow and spruce pine, red pine, fir, hackmatack, ash and white pine; cedar being used for boats.

Timber for Masts, Yards and Spars.—Pieces of yellow, spruce or red pine timber. Those pieces, suitable for masts are called sticks. Special care is required in their inspection to see that they are sound. They are divided into squared sticks, called inch-masts, classed according to the number of inches at the side, and into round sticks, classed according to their girth at the butt, in hands of four inches, called hand-masts if their girth is not less than six hands, and spars if their girth is less than six hands. Spars are sub-divided into classes, as follow:

Name. Length. Girth at the Butt.
Cant spars From 33 to 35 feet. From 6 to 5 hands.
Barling spars 28 to 30 feet. 5 to 4 hands.
Boom spars 20 to 25 feet. 4 to 3 hands.
Middling spars 16 to 20 feet. 3 to 2 hands.
Small spars 11 to 16 feet. 1 to 2 hands.

Immersion in mud is considered the best mode of preserving spar or mast timber until needed for use.

Timber-Heads.—Timbers left clear for lashing the anchors, making fast stoppers, shank-painters, etc.

Timber-and-Room.See Room-and-space.

Tonnage.—The cubical contents or burthen of a ship in tons. There are several ways of estimating tonnage, as builder's measurement, custom-house measurement, and tonnage by displacement.

Top and Butt.—A method of working English oak plank so as to make good conversion. As the plank runs very narrow at the top, clear of sap, this is done by disposing the top end of every plank within six feet of the butt end of the plank above or below it, letting every plank work as broad as it will hold clear of sap, by which method only can every other seam produce a fair edge.

Top-Hamper.—All weight above the centre of gravity of the vessel. Generally used, however, to express unnecessary weight aloft.

Topside.—A name given to all that part of a ship's side above the main-wales.

Top-Timbers.—The timbers which form the topside. The first general tier which reach the top are called the long top-timbers, and those below are called the short top-timbers. See Frames.

Top-Timber Line.—The curve limiting the height of the sheer at the given breadth of the top-timbers.

Touch.—The broadest part of a plank worked top and butt, which place is six feet from the butt end. Or the middle of a plank worked anchor-stock fashion. Also the sudden angles of the stern-timbers at the counters, etc.

Trail-Boards.—A term for the carved work between the cheeks, at the heel of the figure.

Transom-Knee.—A knee used against the transom in square-sterned ships.

Transoms.—The 'thwartship timbers which are bolted to the stern-post in order to form the buttock, and of which the curves forming the round aft are represented on the horizontal or half-breadth plan of the ship.

Transom-Seat.—A transom fayed and bolted to the counter-timbers above the deck, generally at the height of the portsill.

Tread of the keel.—The whole length of the keel upon a straight line.

Treenails.—Cylindrical oak pins driven through the planks and timbers of a vessel, to fasten or connect them together. These certainly make the best fastening when driven quite through, and caulked or wedged inside. They should be made of the very best oak or locust, cut near the butt, and perfectly dry or well-seasoned.

The Tuck.—The after part of the ship, where the ends of the planks of the bottom are terminated by the tuck-rail, and all below the wing-transom when it partakes of the figure of the wing-transom as far as the fashion-pieces. See Square Tuck.

Tuck-Rail.—The rail which is wrought well with the upper side of the wing-transom, and forms a rabbet for the purpose of caulking the butt ends of the planks of the bottom.

Upright.—The position of a ship when she inclines neither to one side nor the other.

Wales.—The principal strakes of thickstuff wrought on the outside of the ship upon the main-breadth. Also those strakes wrought between the ports of a man-of-war, called the channel-wales. There are also in very large ships sheer-wales, middle-wales and main-wales.

Wall-Sided.—A term applied to the topsides of the ship when the main breadth is continued very low down and very high up, so that the topsides appear straight and upright like a wall.

Wash-Board.—A shifting strake along the topsides of a small vessel, used occasionally to keep out the sea.

Water-Lines, or Lines of Flotation.—Those horizontal lines, supposed to be described by the surface of the water on the bottom of a ship, and which are exhibited at certain depths upon the sheer-plan. Of these the most particular are those denominated the light water-line and the load water-line; the former, namely, the light water-line, being that line which shows the depression of the ship's body in the water when light or unladen, as when first launched; and the latter, which exhibits the same when laden with her guns and ballast, or cargo. In the half-breadth plan these lines are curves limiting the half-breadth of the ship at the height of the corresponding lines in the sheer-plan.

Waterways.—The edge of the deck next the timbers, which is wrought thicker than the rest of the deck, and so hollowed to the thickness of the deck as to form a gutter or channel for the water to run through to the scuppers.

Wedges.—Slices of wood driven in between the masts and their partners, to admit of giving rake if desired.

Whelps.—The brackets or projecting parts of the barrel of a capstan.

Whole-Moulded.—A term applied to the bodies of those ships which are so constructed that one mould made to the midship-bend, with the addition of a floor hollow, will mould all the timbers below the main-breadth in the square body.

Wings.—The places next the side upon the orlop, parted off in foreign ships of war, that the carpenter and his crew may have access round the ship in time of action, to plug up shot-holes, etc.

Wing-Transom.—The uppermost transom in the stern frame, upon which the heels of the counter-timbers are let in and rest. It is by some called the main-transom.

Wood-Lock.—A piece of elm or oak, closely fitted and sheathed with copper, in the throating or score of the pintle, near the load water-line, so that when the rudder is hung and the wood-lock nailed in its place, it cannot rise, because the latter butts against the under side of the brace and butt of the score.

Wrain-Bolt.—Ring-bolts used when planking, with two or more forelock holes in the end for taking in the set, as the plank, etc., works nearer the timbers.

Wrain-Stave.—A sort of stout billet of tough wood, tapered at the ends so as to go into the ring of the wrain-bolt, to make the setts necessary for bringing-to the planks or thickstuff to the timbers.

Yacht.—A small vessel (sailing or steam vessel), light and elegantly furnished for private parties of pleasure.

* Obsolete.

† Or clinker-built.

Richard Worsam Meade: A Treatise on Naval Architecture and Ship-Building or an Exposition of the Elementary Principles Involved in the Science and Practice of Naval Construction. Compiled from various standard authorities. By Commander Richard W. Meade, …
J.B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 1869 [2nd]. First edition 1868.

Transcribed by Lars Bruzelius.

Sjöhistoriska Samfundet | The Maritime History Virtual Archives | Etymology | Search.

Copyright © 2004 Lars Bruzelius.