With other Observations.


ABAFT, signifies the hinder part of the ship, or that part nearest the stern.

AFORE, is applied to any thing placed nearer the head than stern.

AFT, that part of the ship from the midships to the stern.

AFTER, is a term applied to any thing belonging to the aft part of the ship, as after body, after timbers, &c.

ANCHOR STOCK, a method of working planks, whereby the butt of one plank comes nearly over the middle of another plank, and the planks being broadest in the middle, and tapered to the butts, they thereby appear in shape like an anchor-stock.

APRON, is a part brought on to the aft side of the stem, in order to strengthen it, the scarphs therefore should always be disposed clear of those of the stem; when the rabbet of the stem is at the aft part, the apron is frequently sided more than the stem, that it may receive the fastenings of the fore hoods; but as the fastenings must all be drove nearly in one direction, they are liable to split the apron, therefore it is much stronger work when the rabbet of the stem is in the middle, because then the apron is sided the same as the stem, and the knightheads are fayed close to the stem and apron, and bolted through both; the butt end bolts may then be drove into the knight-heads, which are broad enough to admit of their being cross bored, and also secures the butts of the fore hoods much better than when they are fastened to the apron.


BACKSTAY-STOOL, are short pieces of plank, fitted for the dead eyes of the back stays, the same as the channels.

BALCONY, the gallery in the stern, which is chiefly in large ships.

BEAK-HEAD, is a small platform in large ships at the fore part of the upper deck, it serves occasionally for the use of a gun, for which reason it should be placed at the same height as the port sills; but it is chiefly for the conveniency of the men.

BEAMS, are the large pieces of timber placed across the ship under the decks, their ends are lodged on the clamps and fayed to the timbers, and being bound to the side by knees, they therefore support and keep the ship together.

BEARDING, is a term applied to the diminishing of any piece of timber or plank from a given line, such as the bearding line of the dead wood, bearding of the clamps, plank sheers, fife rails, &c.

BELLY, the inside or hollow part of compass timber, the outside of which is called the back.

BEND, the form of the ship's body from the keel to the top of the side, at any particular place, as at the broadest part of the ship it is termed the midship bend.

BEVELLING, is a term applyed to any alteration from a square: there are two sorts of bevellings, viz. Standing, and under; by a standing bevelling is meant that which is without a square, and an under bevelling, that which is within a square.

BINDING-STRAKES, are two strakes of oak in the decks, generally wrought near the comings, and worked all fore and aft, they are thicker than the rest of the deck, and let down between the beams and ledges, so that the upper side shall be even with the rest of the deck, the design of them is to strengthen and bind the deck so well together as to prevent its drawing.

BIRTHING, is a term generally used in the working of planks, as birthing up a bulkhead, topside, &c.

BITTS, or BITT PINS, those large pieces of straight timber to which the cables are fastened, their heads are placed on the same deck with hawse holes. There are also small ones fitted near the masts, for the conveniency of the topmasts and rigging.

BLACK STRAKE, is that strake which is worked upon the upper edge of the wales, which is to assist the strength of the ship in that part; and in ships where there are no ports near the wales, there are generally two black strakes wrought.

BOBSTAY HOLES, are those holes in the fore part of the knee of the head, for the security of the bobstay under the bowsprit.

BOLTS, the iron or copper fastenings by which the different parts of the ship are fastened together.

BOWS, the round part of the ship forward on both sides.

BOXING, the projection left on the hawse-pieces in the wake of the hawse-holes, where the planks do not run through.

BRACES, that security to the rother, which is fixed to the stern post, and bottom of the ship, and to which the rother is hung.

BREAST-HOOKS, are large pieces of compass or knee timber, placed across the bows of the ship, into which they are bolted; they are the chief security to keep the bows together, and those below the decks should always be placed square with the body of the ship.

BREAST-RAIL, the upper rail of the balcony, or of the breast-work on the quarter deck.

BREAST-WORK, are those stantions with rails on the foremost end of the quarter deck, and after end of the forecastle.

BREECH, the angle formed by knee timber, the inside of which is called the throat.

BULGE, that part of the ship she bears on, when on the ground.

BULGEWAYS, those pieces of timber which are placed under the bulge of the ship to support her when launching: their extreme distance is generally one third the breadth of the ship, but this should wholly be governed by the form of the midship bend,

BULKHEADS, the same with partitions in a house.

BUMPKINS, are those pieces fitted above the main rail, and extend outwards, for the purpose of hawling down the fore tack.

BUTT, the opening between the ends of two planks when worked, it also signifies the ground end or biggest end of all timbers.

BUTTOCK, that part of the body abaft, bounded at the upper part by the wing transom, and below by the upper or second water line.


CAMBER, a term for any thing that rounds.

CANT, any thing that does not stand square is said to be on the cant.

CANT-TIMBERS, those timbers afore and abaft which do not stand square from the middle line of the ship.

CANTING, the act of turning any thing from one side to the other, as canting of plank, timber, &c.

CAPS, pieces of oak laid on the upper blocks under the keel, which are for the purpose of spliting out when the ship is nearly finished to put the false keel under, they therefore should be of free'st oak, and should be in thickness somewhat more than the fale [sic] keel, in order to allow for the settling of the ship, and likewise for wedges to be drove under the false keel to press it close to the main keel.

CAPSTAN, a piece of mechanism for heaving up the anchor, or for other purposes which require a great strain.

CARLINGS, are square pieces of timber which lie fore and aft from one beam to another, and are the main pieces of the framing of the decks, being scored into the beams.

CATHEADS, are large pieces of timber fixed one on each side the ship at the fore most end of the forecastle, and are for the purpose of heaving up the anchor, one end of them is fastened to the forecastle, and the other projects without the bow, so far as to keep the anchor clear of the ship when it is heaving up by a tackle, the block of which is called the cat block, and the tackle is called the cat-fall.

CAULKING, the act of filling the seams of the planks full of oakum to prevent the ship from leaking.

CHAINS, are links of iron from the dead eyes to the ship's side, for the purpose of securing the rigging.

CHAMPHER, the taking of a sharp edge from any piece of timber or plank.

CHANNELS, are broad planks fitted to the ship's side, for the purpose of fitting the dead eyes; they are generally fayed close to the ship's side, by which they harbour a great deal of wet and dirt, and by that means help to rot the side, and likewise the channel; they should therefore have an opening between them and the side, about one inch and half or two inches, letting them be close to the side only at those places where the bolts go through, so that there would always be a passage for wet, dirt, &c. and would likewise admit of the air passing through, which is another very necessary matter.

CHANNEL-WALES, are those strakes worked between the gun deck and upper deck ports of large ships, for the strength of the topside, and are generally placed in the best manner possible, to admit of the deck bolts passing through them.

CHEEKS, are those pieces of knee timber upon the ship's bows, for the security of the knee of the head.

CHESTREE, is a piece fitted to the topside abaft the fore channel, with a shiver fixed in its head for the conveniency of hawling home the fore tack.

CHINE, that part of the water way which is left the thickest, and is above the deck, in order that the lower seam of spirketting may be more conveniently caulked.

CHOCKS, are any pieces that are fitted to make a deficiency; as at the heads and heels of timber, &c.

CIELING [sic], a term sometimes used to signify the inside plank on the flat of the floor.

CLAMPS, are those strakes worked within side, upon which the ends of the beams are placed.

CLEAN, is a term generally used to express the sharpness of a ship's body; as when a ship is very sharp forward, and the same aft, they say she is clean both forward and aft.

COCKPIT, that part of the after platform between the store rooms, where the wounded are taken down to be dressed in the time of action.

COMPANION, is the birthing round the ladder way leading to the great cabin, and is chiefly in small ships for the purpose of preventing the sea from beating down.

COUNTER, lower, is that part of the stern between the wing transom and the rail above; and between that and the rail under the lights, is called the upper counter.

COUNTER-TIMBERS, are those short timbers in the stern, put in only for the purpose of strengthening the counter.

CROSS CHOCKS, are pieces fayed across the dead wood in midships to make good the deficiency of the heels of the lower futtocks.

CROSS-PIECES, are those pieces of timber bolted to the bitts athwartships, and are for the purpose of belaying the cables, &c.

CROSS-PAULS, are those pieces of fir timber or deals which keep the ship together whilst in her frames.

CROWS FOOT, is a crooked or cast piece of timber, extended from the side of a beam to the ship's side, to supply the place of a beam as in the main hatch, main mast room, &c.

CRUTCHES, those pieces of crooked timber placed within side the ship abaft, for the security of the heels of the half timbers.


DAGGER, a piece of timber that crosses the poppets of the bulgeways to keep them together, and the plank that secures the heads of the poppets, is called the dagger plank.

DAGGER-KNEES, are knees supplying the place of hanging knees, and their side arms are brought up with a cast to the under side of the lodging knees; they are chiefly in the lower decks of merchant ships, in order to preserve as much stowage in the hold as possible.

DEAD-DOORS, are doors fitted to the outside of the quarter gallery doors, in case the quarter gallery should be carried away.

DEAD-EYES, are round pieces of elm fixed in the channels with three holes in them, through which the lanyards of the shrouds are reeved.

DEAD FLAT, a name given to that timber or frame which has the greatest breadth and greatest capacity in the ship, and generally termed the midship bend: in those ships where there are several frames or timbers of the same breadth or capacity, that which is the middle one should always be reckoned as dead flat.

DEAD LIGHTS, shutters made to the stern and gallery lights, and fixed to the outside in bad weather.

DEAD WOOD, are pieces of timber placed fore and aft on the keel, for the purpose of seating the floor timbers, and afore and abaft the floor timbers it is continued as high as the cutting-down line, for the purpose of receiving the heels of the cant timbers.

DECKS, are those parts in a ship which are similar to floors in a house, and are denominated according to their situation, as lower, middle, upper, &c. The lower deck of large ships is wholly laid with oak plank, nailed to the beams, and treenailed to the ledges; the other decks are laid with deal, only at those parts where the bolts of the standards pass through, which are oak.

DOWSING-CHOCKS, pieces fayed a cross the apron, and lapped on the knightheads or inside stuff above the upper deck.

DRAUGHT, the drawing or delineation of the ship upon paper, describing the different parts, and from which the ship is built; it is generally drawn by a scale of one quarter of an inch to a foot.

DRAUGHT of WATER, is a term signifying the depth of water a ship displaces when swimming or lying therein.

DRIFTS, are those parts where the rails are cut off, and ended with a scrole.

DRIFT-PIECES, the pieces fitted to form the scroles at the drifts.

DRIVER, a name given to the foremost spur in the bulgeways, the heel of which is fayed to the fore side of the foremost poppet, and the sides of it look fore and aft.

DRUXY, timber in a state of decay, with white spungy veins.

DUB, a term signifying to work with an adze.


EEKING, any piece fitted to make good a deficiency in length, as at the end of a knee, or at the lower part of the supporter under the cat-head, where it is only put to continue the shape and fashion of that part, being of no other service.

EVEN-KEEL, a ship is said to swim on an even keel, when she draws the same draught of water both afore and abaft.


FACE-PIECE, a piece on the knee of the head, which is wrought on the fore part to assist the conversion of the main piece, and likewise to shorten the upper bolts.

FALSE-KEEL, is composed of pieces of elm, fitted under the main keel to preserve it from being rubbed, and also if the ship should happen to strike the ground, the false keel will give way, and by that means save the main keel; it will likewise make the ship hold a better wind.

FALSE-POST, a piece brought on at the aft part of the main post for the same purpose as the false keel, that is, to save the main post, in case the ship should happen to strike in that part.

FALLING-HOME, a term generally applied to the upper part of the topside when it is very much within a perpendicular.

FASHION-PIECES, those timbers which are secured to the ends of the transoms.

FAY, a term signifying to join any one piece so close to another, that not the least opening shall be seen.

FENDERS, are two pieces upon the topside, abreast of the main hatchway, to prevent the ship's side from being rubbed by hoisting in goods.

FIFE-RAIL, a rail wrought on the timber heads above the quarter deck and forecastle, similar to the plank sheer.

FIGURE, the principal piece of carve work in the head, placed as an ornament to the fore part of the ship.

FILLINGS, pieces of fir fayed between the cheeks of the head.

FILLING-TIMBERS, are those timbers which are put up after the ship is in her frames and shored, and are not bolted together as those which compose the frames.

FINISHINGS, the carved ornaments of the quarter gallery; those below are called the lower finishings, and those above the upper finishings.

FLATS, a name given to all the timbers in midships, which are similar to dead flat.

FLARING, signifies opposite to falling home, as when a ship's side forward falls out from a perpendicular, they say she has a flaring bow.

FLOORS, the lowermost timbers of the ship, upon which the whole frame is erected; they generally extended as far forward as the fore mast, and as far aft as the after square timber, in the after part of the ship; they are very difficult to procure, and in large ships are made in three pieces, which occasions a great consumption of timber to little purpose; for the floor being designed to go in its usual place, two of the pieces are made to butt at the middle line, then a large chock is placed across them and bolted to each, the upper side of which chock is kept well with the cutting down, so that from the upper part of the chock to the head of the floor timber, there is very little shift of timber to bolt the frame, because the lower futtock must be shortened to step on the chock; it would therefore be stronger to have a floor of natural growth, even if one arm was no longer than the distance from the chock to the floor as before mentioned, for then the lower futtock would extend to the dead wood, and might thereby be bolted through the short arm of the floor; but if a floor of natural growth with one short arm was not approved of, it would be best to secure the floor ribband as far as the aft part of the square body, and then put in the lower futtocks, which might be bolted through the dead wood, and placing the chock at the aft side of the lower futtocks it might be bolted to them; this would require the second futtocks to be somewhat longer at the heels, in order for them to step on the chock, which in this part of the ship might be very easily procured. This method would increase the shift of timber, be much stronger, and also favour the conversion of timber, for the halves of the floors must be cut from the butt of the tree to gain substance at the lower end, and therefore might at the same time be converted to a lower futtock; the regular bolting of the floors would also be preserved, as the chock would be in the place of the floor, and this would always be of sufficient strength in this part of the ship, when floors of a proper growth could not be obtained.

FOOT SPACE-RAIL, that rail in the balcony in which the ballusters step.

FORE and AFT, a term generally used to express the direction from head to stern.

FORE CASTLE, the short deck above the upper deck forward.

FOREMOST, a term generally applied to any thing nearer to the head than another.

FOOTWALING, the inside plank of the bottom.

FORE-FOOT, a name given to the foremost piece of keel.

FORWARD, the fore part of the ship.

FRAMES, those bends of timber which are bolted together, and risen up to shape the body of the ship.

FURRENS, pieces to supply the deficiency of the timber the moulding way.

FUTTOCKS, the separate pieces of timber of which the frames are composed; as first futtock, second futtock, third futtock, &c.


GAMMONING HOLE, a hole cut through the knee of the head, for the use of gammoning or securing the bowsprit.

GARBOARD STRAKE, that strake of the bottom which is wrought next to the keel.

GRATINGS, the lids or covers to the hatchways which are made with cross battens and ledges.

GRIPE, that part below the knee of the head which bolts to the stem, and connects with the end of the fore foot.

GROUNDWAYS, the pieces of timber which are laid in the ground across the dock or slip, in order to make a good foundation to lay the blocks on.

GUNWALE, that plank which covers the heads of the timbers between the main and fore drifts.


HAIR-BRACKET, the moulding which comes at the back of the figure, and breaks in with the upper cheek.

HALF-PORTS, shutters made of slit deal and fitted to the ports, with a hole cut in them to point the gun through.

HALF-TIMBERS, the timbers in the cant bodies, which are answerable to the lower futtocks in the square body.

HANCE, a term generally meant to express the breaks in the rother, or those places where it becomes smaller of a sudden.

HANGING, a term signifying any thing whose middle part is below a straight line, as the hanging of the decks, hanging of the sheer, &c.

HARPINGS, those pieces of oak which hold the timbers of the fore and after cant bodies together till the ship is planked.

HATCHES, the covering for the hatchways when made with ledges, and oak or deal fayed close together and caulked.

HATCHWAYS, those square openings in the middle of the decks for conveyances from one part of the ship to another.

HAWSE-PIECES, those timbers which compose the bows of the ship when their sides look fore and aft, or nearly so, contrary to the other timbers whose sides look athwartship.

HAWSE-HOLES, holes cut through the hawse-pieces for the cable or hawsers to pass through.

HEAD, a term signifying the upper end of any thing; it is also applied to all the work that is fitted afore the stem, as the figure, knee, rails, &c.

HEAD-RAILS, those rails in the head which extend from the back of the figure to the cat-head and bows, intended chiefly as an ornament to the head.

HEAD-LEDGES, those thwartship pieces which frame the hatchways aud [sic] ladder-ways.

HEEL, a term signifying the lower end of any piece of timber, it is also meant to express the position of a ship when she is not upright, as they then say, she heels.

HELM, a term meant to express the whole apparatus which steers or guides the ship, as the rother, tiller, wheel, &c.

HELM-PORT, that hole in the counter through which the head of the rother passes.

HELM PORT TRANSOM, the piece of timber which is placed across the lower counter within-side, at the height of the helm port, and bolted through every timber for the security of that part.

HOOD, a name given to all the foremost and aftermost planks of the bottom, both within-side and without.

HOOD-ENDS, those ends of the plank which fit into the rabbets of the stem and stern post.

HOOKING, the act of working the edge of one plank into that of another, in such a manner as they cannot be drawn asunder.

HORSE, that round bar of iron which is fixed to the main rail in the head, with stantions and netting, for the safety of the men which have occasion to be in the head.


IN and OUT, a term sometimes used for the scantling of timbers the moulding way, but more particularly applied to those bolts in the knees, which are drove through the ship's side, which are termed In and Out bolts.

INBOARD, a term used to signify any thing that is within the ship; as the inboard works, &c.

INNER-POST, a piece brought on at the fore side of the main post to seat the transom upon; it is a great security for the ends of the planks, as the main post is seldom sufficient afore the rabbet for that purpose, and is a great strengthener in that part of the ship.

JOINT, a term signifying the place where any two pieces are joined, but more particularly is meant to express those lines which are laid down in the mould loft for the purpose of making the moulds for the timbers, as those lines are the shape of the body between every two timbers. which consequently is the joint.


KEEL, those pieces of timber which are joined together endways, and are first laid down, upon which the whole structure is erected; the keel is generally of elm, except the after piece, which is sometimes oak, the number of pieces in the keel is not very material, so as they give a good shift to the pieces of keelson, and likewise the main mast, the scarphs of the keel are secured with a hook in the middle, which should fay very close, being designed on purpose to bear the strain of caulking the butts that the bolts in the scarphs may not be strained.

KEELSON, pieces of timber placed within side the ship exactly over the keel, for the purpose of binding and strengthening the lower part of the ship, it is bolted through the floors, and likewise the keel: the scarphs should be disposed between the scarphs of the keel, and if possible should likewise be disposed clear of the main mast and fore mast, and also the main hatch-way; as every other floor timber is bolted through the keel, and every other through the keelson and keel together, it requires that the middle of the scarphs of the keelson should be disposed over floor timbers that is designed to be bolted through the keelson.

KEVELS, are small pieces fixed within side on the spirketting of the quarter deck, to answer the purpose of timber heads where they are deficient.

KNEES, are those crooked pieces of timber which secure the beams to the ship's side: in those parts of the ship afore and abaft, where knees of wood cannot be procured of a good growth, knees of iron are generally placed, but iron knees must by no means be placed in other parts which require any great strength, for the bolts cannot be drove tight in the iron knees, therefore if the ship strains they consequently will work; the lodging knees are generally disposed on that side of the beam which makes them without a square, and the hanging knees must be placed so as to be clear of the ports, and likewise of the standards on the deck below; they should also be placed on that side of the beam, where riders may be occasionally introduced in their stead, the lodging knees are generally hooked into the beam, near the toe of the knee where the wood is short grained, it is therefore better to leave a tenon in the crown part of the knee at a proper distance from the end of the beam, which will bear the greatest strain, and be much the strongest method.

KNEE of the HEAD, that part which is bolted to the fore part of the stem, and supports the figure, rails, &c. It is composed of several pieces, by reason of its great breadth, and is secured on each side by large knees called the cheeks of the head.

KNIGHTHEADS or BOLLARD TIMBERS, those timbers on each side which are next to the stem, and whose heads are continued sufficiently high to be a security to the bowsprit.

KNUCKLE TIMBERS, those toptimbers in the fore body, whose heads stand perpendicular, and form an angle with the hollow of the topside.


LACING, the name of one of the pieces in the knee of the head, which runs up as high as the top of the hair bracket, and to which the figure is secured.

LADDERS in a ship are for the same purpose as stair-cases in a house, for the conveniency of going from deck to deck.

LADDER-WAYS, the openings in the deck where the ladders are placed.

LAUNCH, signifies a slip for the purpose of building.

LAUNCHING, the act of conveying the ship from the slip into the water.

LAUNCHING PLANKS, those planks which are fitted in the slip on each side, for the purpose of launching the ship.

LAYING DOWN, the act of drawing out the body of the ship upon the mould loft floor, for the purpose of making the moulds.

LAYING OFF, the same with laying down.

LAZARETTO, a name given to an hospital ship, which is for the reception of the sick. It is also the name of a place parted off at the fore part of the lower deck in some merchant ships, for the conveniency of laying up the provisions. stores, &c. necessary for the voyage.

LEAN. See Clean.

LEVEL, the same with horizontal.

LEVELLED OUT, any line continued out from a given spot in a bevel or horizontal direction.

LEDGES, the thwartship pieces in the framing of the decks, which are let into the carlings.

LIMBER BOARDS, short pieces of plank, one edge of which is fitted into a rabbet in the limber strake, and the other edge to the side of the keelson; the limber strake being of some distance from the keelson thereby forms a passage all fore and aft, which admits of the water's having a fair run to the pumps, the use of the limber boards is therefore to form the upper part of that passage, whereby every thing is kept out, such as dirt or rubbish, which might fill it up; and they are fitted in short pieces for the conveniency of taking up at any particular place, to clear away any thing that may happen to be in the limber passage: when the limber boards are fitted care should be taken to have the butts in those places where the bulk-heads come, as there will then be no difficulty in taking those up which come near the bulk-heads.

LIMBER-PASSAGE, a passage formed on each side by the limber strake and the keelson, for the purpose of the water's having a free communication with the pumps.

LIMBER-STRAKE, that strake on each side next the keelson, which forms the limber passage, from the upper side of this strake the depth in hold is always taken.

LOAD WATER LINE, the mark supposed to be made on the ship's bottom when she is loaded.

LONG TIMBERS or DOUBLE FUTTOCKS, those timbers in the cant bodies which extend from the dead wood to the run of the second futtock head.

LUFF, a name given to the roundest part of the bow of the ship.


MAIN BREADTH, a term signifying the broadest part of the ship, at any particular timber of frame, which is distinguished on the draught by the upper and lower height of breadth lines.

MAIN KEEL, a term of distinction between it and the false keel.

MAIN POST, the same with stern post.

MAST-CARLINGS, those carlings which are placed at the sides of the mast-rooms for the purpose of framing the partners.

MAIN-WALES, the lower wales which are generally placed on the main breadth, and likewise so as the lower deck knee bolts shall come in them.

MIDSHIPS, a term signifying the middle part of the ship.

MIDSHIP-BEND, that bend which is called dead flat.

MOULDS, pieces of deal made to the shape of the lines on the mould loft floor, for the purpose of cutting out the different pieces of timber in the ship.

MOULDED, a term signifying the size of the timber that way which the mould is laid.

MOULDING, the act of marking out the true shape of any timber from the mould, it is also a name given to any ornamental projection from the side or other, as part the rails, &c.

MUNIONS, the pieces that part the lights in the stern and quarter gallery.


NAVEL-HOODS, those hoods wrought above and below the hawse-holes.

NOG, a treenail drove through the heels of the shores for to secure them.

NOGGING, the act of securing the heel of the shores.


ORLOP, a temporary deck below the lower deck of large ships chiefly for the conveniency of stowing away the cable, there is also a platform in midships in the smaller ships called the orlop, and for the same purpose.

OVER-HANGING, a term signifying any thing of great projection, as the over-hanging of the stern, &c.

OVER-LAUNCHING, a term signifying to run the butt of one plank of a sufficient distance from the butt of the underneath it, in order to make the stronger work.

OUT-BOARD, a term signifying any thing without side the ship, as the out board works, &c.


PARTNERS, those pieces of thick plank fitted into a rabbet in the mast carlings, for the purpose of wedging the masts, also any plank that is thicker, or above the rest of the deck, for the purpose of steadying whatever passes through the deck, as the partners of the capstands, partners of the pumps, &c.

PILASTERS, those fluted columns which are placed upon the munions between the lights, for the purpose of ornamenting the stern and quarter galleries.

PILLERS, those straight pieces of timber which are fixed under the middle of the beams in order to support the decks.

PINS, those little pieces of iron that are fixed in the drumheads of capstands, through the ends of the bars, to prevent their unshipping, and also those put through the ends of the small bitts to belay a rope, and called belaying pins; sometimes the main bitts are called bitt pins.

PLANK, a name for all timber which is four inches thick and under, except one inch, which is generally termed board.

PLANK SHEERS, pieces of plank laid over the timbers heads of the quarter deck, forecastle, and round house, for the purpose of covering the top of the side.

PLUMB, a term signifying the same with perpendicular.

POOP, a name given to the deck over the roundhouse.

POPPETS, those pieces which are fixed perpendicular between the bottom and the bulgeways at the fore and aftermost parts of the ship.

PORTS, the square holes in the ship's sides for the purpose of putting the guns out.

PORT-LIDS, signifies the shutters to the ports.

POST, the same with stern post.

PREVENTER-PLATES, those plates of iron bolted to the ship's side for the greater security of the dead eye chains.

PREVENTER BOLTS, those bolts drove through the lower end of the preventer plates, to help the strain of the chain bolts.

PUMPS, those machines fitted in the well for the purpose of drawing the water out of the ship's hold.

PUMP-DALES, pipes fitted for the purpose of conveying the water from the pump cisterns through the ship's sides.

PUMP-CISTERNS, small cisterns fitted over the heads of the pumps for receiving the water from which it is conveyed through the pump-dales out of the ship.


QUARTER, the upper part of the topside abaft is generally termed the quarter.

QUARTER DECK, that deck in ships of war which extends from the main mast to the stern.

QUARTER-GALLERIES, those parts which projects from the quarter abaft, fitted with lights and ballusters, and intended both for conveniency and ornament to the aft part of the ship.

QUARTER-PIECES, those carved figures at the after part of the quarter gallery which connects with the taff-rail, and forms the outward boundary of the stern.

QUICKWORK, those short pieces of inside stuff worked between the ports.


RABBET, is a place made in any piece of timber for the purpose of putting the edge or ends of planks in for the better security of it, as in the keel, stem and stern post, where it is cut for the plank of the bottom to fit into.

RACE, the act of marking by a mould on a piece of timber, on any mark with a tool called a racing knife.

RAILS, narrow pieces of fir or oak with a moulding struck on them and fastened to the ship's sides as ornaments, likewise in the head and stern; their names are as follows: the lower rail on the side is termed the waist rail, and the next above it the sheer rail, which is generally placed well with the toptimber line, the rails next above the sheer rail are termed drift rails, and the rail above the plank sheer the fife rail, the rails of the head are known by lower, middle and main or upper rails, and the rails of the stern are named from the parts where they are fixed, as lower counter rail, upper counter rail, &c.

RAKE, a term signifying any part that forms an obtuse angle, as the rake of the stem, sternpost, &c.

RAM LINE, a small rope or line, sometimes used for the purpose of forming the sheer or decks, or setting the decks fair.

RANGES, pieces fixed to the inside of the ship with pins or pegs in them for the purpose of belaying of ropes: it is sometimes meant to express those pieces of oak with holes in them placed between the ports for the use of putting shot in.

RIBBANDS, those pieces of fir nailed to the timbers of the square body to assist in holding the ship together whilst in her frames, and under which the shores are always placed.

RIDERS, large bends of timber bolted within side the ship, for the purposes of strength.

ROOMS, a term used to express the different vacancies between the beams, as the mast rooms, hatch rooms, &c.

ROOM and SPACE, signifies the distance from the moulding edge of one timber, to the moulding edge of another: the room and space in all ships that have ports should be so disposed, that the scantling of the timber on each side the lower ports, and the size of the ports fore and aft may be equal to the distance of two rooms and spaces.

ROUNDHOUSE, that part of the ship abaft, which is above the quarter deck, fitted up with cabins, &c. for the accommodation of the officers.

RUDDER or ROTHER, that part which is hung on the stern post by irons for the purpose of steering the ship; it is composed of several pieces of timber, the main piece which extends from the bottom up and forms the head is generally of oak, and likewise the bearding piece which forms the fore part, but the rest is fir.

RUDDER-IRONS or PINTLES, the irons which are fastened to the rudder for to hang it to the stern post, sometimes two of them are cut short and so work in a socket in the brace, by which means the rudder works much easier.

RUN, a term sometimes used to signify the drawing or marking of a line on the ship, or mould loft floor, as to run the wale line, deck line, &c.


SADDLE, a piece fitted on the upper end of the lacing to secure the foremost end of the main rails.

SCANTLING, the dimensions given for the timber and plank.

SCARPH, the end of one piece of timber or plank lapped over the other, and let into each other in such a manner as both may appear one solid and even surface, as keel pieces, stem pieces, &c.

SCUPPERS, holes cut in the ship's side for the purpose of carrying off the water from the decks.

SCUTTLES, square openings cut in several parts of the decks less than ladder ways or hatchways, chiefly for the purpose of handling small matters up from deck to deck; there are also holes cut through the ship's side called scuttles, for the purpose of admitting the air into the cabins between decks.

SEAMS, the opening between the edges of the planks when wrought.

SEATING, that part of a floor, transom, &c. which rests upon the place it is bolted to.

SEAT-TRANSOM, that transom which is bolted to the counter timbers above the upper, at the height of the port sills.

SHAKEN, a term applied to plank or timber which is full of splits or clefts, and will not bear fastening or caulking; generally called shaky.

SHANK-PAINTER, a chain bolted to the top side abaft the cat-head, for the purpose of lowering the anchor.

SHEER, a term signifying the hanging of the ship's side in a fore and aft direction.

SHEER STRAKE, that strake in the topside, the upper edge of which is generally wrought well with the toptimber line, it being a whole strake all fore and aft, as not being cut by the ports it is the chief strength of the upper part of the topside, and is therefore always worked thicker than the other strakes, and scarphed between the drifts.

SHEER WALES, those strakes of thick stuff in the topside of three deck ships wrought between the middle and upper deck ports.

SHIFT, is a term applied when one butt of a piece of timber or plank overlaunches the butt of another piece, without either being reduced in length for the purpose of strength; such are the timbers of the frame, plank of the bottom, &c.

SHIFTING, the act of setting off the length of the planks in the bottom, topside, &c. in order to make a good shift.

SHIVERS or SHIVES, those wheels placed in the blocks for the purpose of traversing the ropes.

SHOLES, pieces of oak or plank put under the heels of the shores where there are no ground ways to enable them to bear the greater strain.

SHORES, those pieces of fir timber fixed under the sides and bottom of the ship for the support of her.

SIDED, a term applied to the dimensions of a piece of timber the contrary way to which the mould is placed.

SILLS or CELLS, those small pieces of plank or timber which is put to form the upper and lower sides of the ports, scuttles in the side, &c.

SLEEPERS, those pieces of crooked timber placed within side the ship abaft, for the strength of the buttock, one arm is bolted through the timbers in the buttock, and the other through the transom.

SLIP, a place fitted up for the purpose of building the ship and launching her.

SNYING, a term applied to the edge of a plank when it rounds upwards, as those planks in the bottom round the bows where their middle appears above a straight line.

SPANSHACKLE, a large bolt drove through the forecastle and upper deck, and forelocked under the decks, which has a large square ring to its head for the purpose of fixing the end of the david in.

SPIRKETTING, a thick strake wrought within side on the ends of the beams: in ships that have ports it is all the stuff worked between the decks and the ports, which is generally two strakes wrought anchor stock fashion, in which case the middle of the planks should always be got to work as broad as possible, admitting the butt underneath or above to be six inches.

SPURS, large pieces of timber, the lower ends of which are fixed to the bulgeways, and the upper ends bolted to the ship's bottom, they are for a greater security to the bulgeways in case any other part fails.

SQUARE-TUCK, a name given to the after part of a ship's bottom when terminated in the same direction up and down as the wing transom contrary to a buttock, which is round or circular, and the planks end at the fashion-piece.

STANDARDS, large pieces of knee timbers with one arm bolted upon the deck through the beams, and the other through the ship's side for the purpose of strengthening the ship's sides against any sudden or violent shock.

STANDING, a term applied to a bevelling which is without a square.

STANTIONS or STANTIENTS, the upright pieces in a bulk-head, breast work, &c.

STARBOARD and LARBOARD, terms used to distinguish the two sides of the ship, that side to the right, with one's face looking forward or towards the head, is the starboard, and that to the left, the larboard side, the starboard side is always shewn in the draught.

STEELER, a name given to the foremost or aftermost plank in a strake, which drops short of the stem and stern post.

STEERING WHEEL, a wheel fixed on the quarter deck, to which a rope is conveyed from the tiller, for the purpose of steering the ship.

STEM, the foremost piece of timber into which the bows unite, the same with the keel to the bottom.

STEMSON, a piece of timber wrought on the aft part of the apron within side, the lower end of which is scarphed to the keelson, and the upper end is continued as high as the middle or upper deck, it is for the purpose of strengthening and binding that part of the ship, the same as the keelson for the bottom.

STEPS, large pieces of timber fitted across the keelson, into which the heels of the masts are fixed; the holes into which the masts step should be cut in proportion to the steps, so as to leave sufficient wood on each side the hole to answer in strength to the tenon left at the heel of the mast, and if that should be rather too little the hole may be cut more thwartships, to answer the deficiency the fore and aft way: there are likewise pieces fixed on the decks called steps of the capstans, and likewise those pieces in midships nailed from the top of the side to the water's edge, for the conveniency of getting on board, are called steps.

STERN, the after or hinder part of the ship, extending from the wing transom upwards, and the chief ornament to that part of the ship.

STERN-FRAME, the frame of timber composed of the stern post, transom, and fashion pieces, and is the basis of the whole stern.

STERN-POST, the principal piece of timber in the stern frame to which the transoms are bolted, with its lower end tenon'd into the keel.

STOOLS, pieces of plank fastened to the ship's side abaft, for the purpose of forming and erecting the galleries.

STOPPER BOLTS, large ring bolts which are drove in the deck before the main hatch, for the use of the stoppers.

STRAKE, a term signifying one breadth of plank wrought from one end of the ship to the other, both within and without board.

STRING, is a strake within side under the gunwale, and answering to the sheer strake without side, it is scarphed in the same manner as the sheer strake, and bolted through the ship's side into the sheer strake between the drifts, for the purpose of greater strength, as this part requires all the security that is possible to be given in order to assist the sheer.

SUPPORTERS, these circular knees placed under for the security of the cat-heads.

SYPHER'D, one edge of a plank lapped over the edge of another in such a manner that both planks shall make a plain surface.


TABLING, the act of letting one piece of timber into another, something similar to to [sic] hooking of planks so that they cannot be pulled asunder lengthways.

TAFF-RAIL, the carved ornaments at the upper part of the stern, the end of which correspond with the quarter pieces.

TEACH, a term applied to the direction that any line, &c. seems to point out.

TERM-PIECES or TERMS, pieces of carved work placed under each end of the taff-rail upon the side stern timber, and extending down as low as the foot rail of the balcony.

THICK-STUFF, a name for such sided timber which is under one foot and exceed four inches in thickness.

THROAT, the middle inside part of compass or knee timber.

THWARTSHIPS or ATHWARTSHIPS, a term used to express the direction from one side of the ship to the other.

TILLER, a piece of straight timber fitted into the head of the rother, for the purpose of moving it either to one side or the other, in order to steer the ship.

TIMBERS, a name generally given to the pieces of timber which compose the whole frame of the ship, as top timbers, stern timbers, floor timbers, &c.

TONNAGE, a term generally meant to express the burthen a ship is to carry when brought down in the water, to the load draught of water intended in the construction. See Book V. of this Treatise.

TOP-SIDE, a name given to all that part of the ship which is above the main wales.

TOP-TIMBERS, those timbers which are in the top-sides, the first general tier of timbers which reach to the top of the side, are termed the long top timbers, and the others the short top-timbers.

TOP and BUTT, a method of working English plank to make good conversion: it is done by disposing of the top end of every plank within six feet of the butt end of the plank above or below it, letting every plank work as broad as it will, by which means only every other seam is a fair one.

TRAIL-BOARDS, a term for the carve work between the cheeks of the head.

TRANSOMS, the thwartship pieces of timber which are bolted to the stern post in order to form the buttock.

TRANSOM-KNEES, the same with sleepers.

TRIM, a term denoting to work any piece of timber or plank into its proper form or shape.

TUCK, a term applied to the upper part of the buttock, and when the after part of the bottom is formed not circular, or with no bottom, it is call a square tuck. See square tuck.

TUCK-RAIL, the rail which is wrought well with the upper edge of the wing transom.

TUMBLING-HOME, a term applied to the falling in of the topsides into midships: the topsides of three deck ships have the greatest tumbling home, for the purpose of bringing the upper guns nearer the center of the ship, to prevent her from being top-heavy.


UNSHIP, a term signifying the act of taking any thing out of its place.

UNDER, a term applied to any bevelling that is within a square.


WALES, those strakes of thick stuff wrought on the ship's sides upon the breadths or broadest part of the body, likewise those which are wrought between the ports, are called wales.

WAISTE, a name given to all part of the topside which is above the upper deck, between the main and fore drifts.

WALL-SIDED, a term applied to the sides of a ship which continues the breadth very low down, and likewise very high up, so that when the ship is in the water her sides appear straight and upright like unto a wall.

WATERWAYS, those planks of the decks which are wrought next to the timbers.

WELL, a place parted off in the hold round the main mast, in which the pumps are fitted.

WING-TRANSOM, the uppermost transom in the stern frame, upon which is let in the heels of all the counter and stern timbers.

WINDING, a term applied to any thing that twists, and makes an uneven surface.

WITHIN-BOARD, signifying within side the the [sic] ship.

WITHOUT-BOARD, without side the ship.

WROUGHT, a term applied to any thing which is worked.

anon.: The Shipbuilder's Repository; or, A Treatise on Marine Architecture. Wherein are Contained, the Principles of the Art, with the Theory and Practical Parts fully explained; And every Instruction required in the building and completing a Ship, of every Class, from the forming of the Draught, to the launching into the Water. Calculated to the Capacity of young Beginners: Compiled and digested in a Manner entirely new, and laid down different from what has hitherto appeared on the Subject. The whole being intended as A Complete Companion for those Naval Architects, desirous of attaining a Competent Knowledge of that important Art.
The Author, London, 1788.

Transcribed by Lars Bruzelius

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