ALTHOUGH the masts, yards, sails, blocks, and ropes, do althogether compose what may be called the RIGGING OF A SHIP, or VESSEL; yet the mode of applying the ropes to the several other parts, and combining the whole, so as to produce the means of navigating the vessel, it is likewise termed, RIGGING A VESSEL; and of rigging, in this latter sense, we are now about to treat.
There are two species of Rigging: one called STANDING-RIGGING; the other RUNNING-RIGGING.
Ropes used to sustain the masts remain fixed; as shrouds, stays, and back-stays: such are called standing rigging.
The ropes leading through various blocks, and to different places of the masts, yards, sails, and shrouds, and which are moved according to the various operations of navigation, such as the lefts, braces, sheets, tacks, haliards, clue-lines, bunt-lines, leech-lines, bow-lines, spilling-lines, brails, down-haulers, &c. are called running-rigging.
These general ideas of rigging may suffice. For the more easy and accurate knowledge of this science we now commence with an
ARM-GASKET. See GASKET.
ARM-CLEAT. See CLEAT.
AWNING. A canvas covering, expanding over the decks of a ship, to screen the crew from, and prevent the deck spliting by, the heat of the sun.
BACK-STAYS. See STAYS.
BAG-REEF. See REEF.
BALANCE-REEF. See REEF.
BECKETS. Large iron hooks, or short ropes, used in several parts of a ship to confine large main and fore shrouds. Some beckets have an eye spliced in one end, and a small walnut-knot crowned at the other, and some have both ends spliced together like a wreath. The noose made at the breast of a block, to make fast the standing part of a fall-to, is also called a becket.
BELAYING. Fastening a rope, by giving it several cross turns alternately round each end, of a cleat, pin, &c.
BELL-ROPES. See ROPES.
BELAYING-CLEAT. See CLEAT.
BELAYING-PINS. See PINS.
BENDING. Fastening one rope to another, or to different objects, and fastening a sail to its yard.
BENDS. The small ropes used to confine the clinch of a cable.
BENTINCK-SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
BIGHT. The noose, or doubled part of a rope when folded.
BILL-PENDANT. See PENDANT.
BITTS. A frame composed of two upright pieces of timber, called the pins, and a cross piece fastened horizontally on the top of them: they are used to belay cables and ropes to. BOWLINE and BRACE BITTS are situated near the masts; the FORE-JEER and TOPSAIL-SHEET bitts are situated on the forecastle and round the fore-mast; the MAIN-JEER and TOPSAIL-SEET-BITTS, tenon into the fore-mast-beam of the quarter-deck; the RIDING-BITTS are the largest bitts in a ship, and those to which the cable is bitted when the vessel rides at anchor.
BIT-STOPPER. See STOPPER.
BLOCKS. Machines used in ships, &c. to encrease the mechanical power of ropes, See the treatise on blocks.
BLOCK-AND-BLOCK. The situation of a tackle when the effect is destroyed by the blocks meeting together.
BOARDING-NETTING. See NETTING.
BOATSKIDS. Long square pieces of fir, extending across the ship from the gang-boards, and on which the boats, square masts, &c are stowed.
BOBSTAY. See STAY.
BOLSTERS. Bags filled with rope-yarn, or shakings, which are placed under the shrouds and stays, to prevent their chafing against the trestle-trees.
BOLT-ROPE. The rope sewed to the edges of sails.
BOOMS. Long poles run out from the extremities of the yards, bowsprits, and sides of the masts, to extend the feet of particular sails. The DRIVER-BOOM, on which the foot of the driver, or spanker, is extended, is attached to the mizen-masts, and the outer end hangs over the stern. The JIB-BOOM is run out from the outer end of the bowsprit, and extends the foot of the jib. The MAIN-BOOM, used in vessels of one or two masts, is similar to the driver-boom of a ship, and on this is spread the foot of the main-sail. The RINGTAIL-BOOM is a small boom projecting from the stern of some vessels to spread the foot of the ringtail-sail; and also a small boom, lashed occasionally, to the outer end of the mainsail-boom, to spread the foot of the ringtail-sail when hoisted at the after-leech of fore and aft main-sails. The SQUARE-SAIL-BOOM is lashed across the deck of vessels with one mast, to spread the foot of the square-sail. STUDDING-SAIL-BOOMS, to spread the studding-sails, slide through boom-irons at the extremities of the yards, and from the vessels' sides.
BOOM-IRONS. Two flat iron rings formed into one piece, one above the other; employed to connect the booms to the yards, &c. the lower rings is the largest, and is driven on the yard: some boom-irons fasten on the yards with a crotch or strap, secured by nails and hoops.
BOOM-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
BOWSING. Hauling or pulling upon a rope or fall of a tackle to remove a body, or increase the tension.
BOWLINE. See LINES.
BOWLINE-BITTS. See BITTS.
BOWLINE-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
BOWSPRIT. The large boom or mast which projects over the stem. See the treatise on masts.
BOWSPRIT-HORSES. See HORSES.
BOWSPRIT-NETTING. See NETTING.
BOWSPRIT-SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
BRACE. A rope to turn the yards and sails horizontally about the masts, and shift them when necessary. PREVENTER-BRACE. A rope used in ships of war, to supply the place of a brace, should that be shot away or damaged. They are led the contrary way, to be less leiable to detriment at the same time.
BRACE-BITTS. See BITTS.
BRACE-PENDENTS. See PENDENT.
BRAILS. Ropes passing through blocks on the gaff, and fastened to the after-leech of fore and main-sails, to truss or brail them up. Similar also are the brails of stay-sails.
BREAST-ROPE. See ROPE.
BREAST-WORK. The rails and stantions on the foremost end of the quarter-deck and poop.
BREAST-WORK-NETTING. See NETTING.
BRIDLES. Short ropes, or legs, which fasten the bowlines to the cringles on the leeches of sails.
BUMKINS OR BOOMKINS. Short booms projecting from each side of the bow to haul down the fore-tack.
BUMKIN-SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
BUNT-GASKET. See GASKET.
BUNTLINES. See LINES.
BURTONS. See BURTON TACKLES.
BUOY-ROPE. See ROPE.
BURTON-PENDANTS. See PENDENTS.
BURTOON-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
BUTTON AND LOOP. A Short piece of rope, having at one end a walnut knot, crowned, and at the other end an eye. It is used as a becket to confine ropes in.
BUTTONS. Small pieces of thick leather under the heads of nails that are driven through ropes.
CABLET. Any cable-laid rope under nine inches in circumference.
CAPS. Short thick blocks of wood, with two holes in them, used to condine the masts together. See the treatise in mast-making.
To CAP a rope. To cover the end with tarred canvas, which is whipt with twine or spun-yarn.
CAPSTERN. A machine for heaving up anchors, or other great strains.
CAST-OFF. To loose a rope, by unseizing it, or by cutting the lashing.
CATHARPINS. Short ropes, to keep the lower shrouds in tight, after they are braced in by swifters, and to afford room to brace the yards sharp.
CATFALL. The rope that forms the tackle at the outer end of the cat-head, and through the sheaves of the cat-block alternately.
CHAIN-BOAT. A large boat fitted with a davit over its stem, and two windlasses, one forward, and the other aft, in the inside. It is used for getting up mooring-chains, anchors, &c.
CHAIN-PLATES. Thick iron plates bolted to the ship's sides, and to which the chains and dead-eyes that support the masts by the shrouds are connected.
CHAINS, or CANNELS, or CHAINWALES. Broad thick planks, bolted edgeways, against the ship's sides, abreast and abaft the masts, used to extend the shrouds from each other, and from the head of the masts.
CHEST-TREES. Narrow pieces of oak plank, fitted and bolted to the top-sides of vessels abaft the fore-channels, with a sheave in the upper end; it confines the clues of the main-sail, by hauling home the main-tack through the sheave.
CHOAKING the LUFF. Placing the bight of the leading part, or fall of a tackle, close up between the nest part and jaw of the block.
CHOCK. A thick triangular piece of wood, fastened in a temporary manner in the strap at the arse of the block: on the base of the chock-wedges are driven to force the block into its place.
CLAMP. A crooked iron plate, fastened to the after-end of the main-cap of snows, to secure the trysail-mast.
CLASP-HOOP. See HOOP.
CLEATS. Pieces of wood of various shapes, used for stops, and to make ropes fat to, viz. ARM or SLING-CLEATS are nailed on each side of the slings of the lower yard, and have an arm at one end which lies over the straps of the jeer blocks to prevent their being chaffed. BELAYING-CLEATS have two arms, or horns, and are nailed through the middle to the masts, or elsewhere, to belay ropes to. COMB-CLEATS are semi-circular, and are hollowed in the middle to confine a rope to one place. RANGE-CLEATS are shaped like belaying-cleats, but are much larger, and are bolted through the middle. SHROUD-CLEATS have two arms, similar to belaying-cleats; the inside is holloed to fit the shrouds, and grooves are cut round the middle and ends to receive the seizings, which confine them to the shrouds. STOP-CLEATS are nailed to yard-arms, to prevent the slipping of the rigging and the gammoning, and to stop collars on masts, &c. THUMB-CLEATS are shaped like arm-cleats, but are much smaller.
CLINCH. That part of a cable which is fastened to the ring of an anchor, &c.
CLOATHING THE BOLSTERS. Laying several thicknesses of worn canvas, well tarred, over them, to make an easy bed for the shrouds.
CLUE-GARNETS. Tackles connected to the clues of main and fore courses, to truss the sail up to the yard.
CLUE-LINES. See LINES.
COIL. Rope laid in regular folds for the convenience of stowage, and haing upon cleats, to prevent its being entangled.
COLLAR. The upper part of a stay; also a rope formed into a wreath, by splicing the ends together, with a heart, or dead-eye, seized in the bight, to which the stay is confined at the lower part.
COMB-CLEAT. See CLEATS.
CRINGLES. Small loops made on the bolt-rope of a sail; used to fasten different ropes to, hook the reef tackles to, for drawing the sail up to its yard, to fasten the bridles of the bowline to, and to extend the leech of the sail, &c.
CROSS-JACK-YARD. See YARD.
CROTCHES. Pieces of wood or iron, the upper part of which is composed of two arms, resembling a half-moon. They are chiefly used to support spare masts, &c.
CROSS-TREES. Short flat pieces of timber, let in and bolted athwartships to the trestle-trees, at the mast-head, to support the tops, &c.
CROW-FOOT. An assemblage of small cords, which reeve through holes, made at regular distances through the uphroe; its use is to suspend the awnings, and keep the foot of the top-sail from striking under the tops.
CROWN OF THE CABLE. The bights which are formed by the several turns.
CROWNING. The finishing of a knot made on the end of a rope.
CUNTLINE. The intervals between the strands of a rope.
DAVIT. A short boom fitted in the fore-channel, and used as the arm of a crane to hoist the flukes of the anchor clear of the ship's side, till high enough to lay on the gunwale, and fastened by the shank-painter.
DAVIT-ROPE. See ROPE.
DEAD-EYES. Round flat wooden blocks, with three holes instead of sheaves, through which the laniards reeve, when setting up the shrouds, or stays. The power gained by dead-eyes, is as the number of parts of the laniards rove through them; but, if the laniards be not well greased, the power will be greatly lost by friction, so that they are never applied as purchases, but merely for the better keeping the quantity gained of any shroud, or stay, when set up, and are much stronger than blocks with sheaves, when strain lies on a single pin.
DECK-STOPPER. See STOPPER.
DERRICK. A tackle used at the outer quarter of a mizen-yard, consisting of a double and single block, connected by a fall; also a diagonal shore, as a support to sheers; also a single spar, top-mast, or boom, raised upright, and supported by guys at the head, from whence hangs a tackle over the hatchway, the heel working in a socket of wood fastened on the deck.
DOG-STOPPER. See STOPPER.
DRIVER-BOOM. See BOOM.
DRIVER-YARD. See YARD.
DOLPHIN. A rope lashed round the mast as a support to the pudding.
DOWNHAULER. A rope which hoists down the stay-sails, studding-sails, and boom-sails, to shorten sail, &c.
EARINGS. Small topes employed to fasten the upper corners of sails.
EASE-OFF, OR VEER-AWAY. To slacken a rope gradually.
ENTERING-ROPE. See ROPE.
EYE OF A SHROUD. The upper part, which is formed into a sort of collar to go over the mast heads.
EYELET-HOLES: The holes made in the head and reefs of sails.
FAKE. One or more turns of a rope when stowed, or coiled.
FALL. The rope that connects the blocks of a tackle; but the fall sometimes implies only the loose part which is pulled upon to produce the desired effect.
FANCY-LINES. See LINES.
FANGS OR LEE-FANGS. A rope fastened to a cringle, near the foot of a ketche's wing-sail, to gaul in the foot of the sail for lacing on the bonnet, or taking in the sail.
FENDERS. Pieces of wood, or old cable, bags of old rope-yarn, shakings, cork, or other materials, hung by a laniard over a vessel's sides, to prevent her being damaged.
FID. A square bar of iron, or wood, driven through a hole in the heel of a top-mast, when raised at the head of a lower-mast; it, resting on the trestle-trees, supports the top-masts, &c. The topgallant-mast is retained in the same manner at the head of the top-mast, and the royal mast above that.
FIDS. Round tapering pins of various sizes, made of iron, or hard wood, and used for splicing of cordage.
FISH-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
FISH-TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
FLAG-STAFF. See STAFF.
FLAG-STAFF-STAYS. See STAYS.
FLEETING. Changing the situation of a tackle, by placing the blocks further asunder, the force being destoyed by the blocks meeting, called block-and block.
FLEMISH HORSES. See HORSES.
FLY OF A FLAG. The opposite part to the hoist.
FLYING OF SAILS. Setting them in loose a manner; as royal sails without lifts, or sheets, the clues being lashed; as small topgallant-sails, jibs, without stays; and as studding-sails without booms.
FORE-TOPGALLANT-STAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
FOUL implies entangled, as the tackle is when twisted. The Cables are FOUL, when twisted round each other, by a vessel's turning round the anchors by which she rides.
FOXES. Twisted rope-yarns; used for making of rope bands, &c. &c.
FRAPPING. Taking several turns round the middle of a lashing, or any number of ropes, and drawing the several parts tight together.
FURLING. Wrapping, or rolling a sail close up to its yard, mast, or stay, and fastening it up with gaskets, lines, &c.
FURLING-LINE. See LINES.
FUTTOCK-PLATE. A narrow plate of iron, having a dead-eye bound in the upper end. An eye is made in the lower end, which is put through a mortise in the sides of the top, to hook the futtock-shroud to.
FUTTOCK-SHROUD. See SHROUD.
FUTTOCK-STAVE. A short piece of rope served over with spun-yarn, to which the shrouds are confined at the catharpins.
GAFF. A pole used to extend the mizen course of a ship, and the fore and aft mainsails of smaller vessels.
GAMMONING. The rope which binds the inner quarter of the bowsprit close down upon the stem, that it may rest well in its bed.
GANGWAY-NETTING. See NETTING.
GASKETS. Braided cordage used to confine the sail to the yard, when furled, &c. ARM-GASKETS; those gaskets used at the extremities of yards. BUNT-GASKETS are those used in the middle of yards. QUARTER-GASKETS; those used between the middle and extremities of the yards.
GIRT-LINES. See LINES.
GRIPES. Short ropes with dead eyes, used to confine the boats to the deck.
GROMMETS. Rings made of worn rope, which are used to confine the nock of spritsails to the masts, and the oars of boats to the pins, instead of rowlocks, &c.
GUEST-ROPE. See ROPE.
GUYS. Ropes to keep steady sheers, davits, or derricks, when charged with any weight body.
GUY-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
HAGSTEETH. Those parts pointing, matting, or the like, which are intertwisted with the rest in an irregular manner.
HALIARDS. Ropes or tackles employed to hoist or lower yards, sails, and flags, upon the msts, yards, stays, &c.
HAND-TIGHT. A moderate degree of tension on a rope, as to make it straight.
HANKS. Rings made of iron, or hoopsticks bent in a circular form, fixed on the stays to confine the staysails.
TO HAUL, To pull on a rope.
HEAD-LINE. See LINES.
HEAD-NETTING. See NETTING.
HEART. A peculiar sort of dead-eye, resembling a heart: it has one large hole in the middle, to contain the laniard, by which the stays or shrouds are extended.
HEAVER. A short wooden staff, used as a lever in setting up the topmast-shrouds, strapping of blocks, and seizing the rigging, &c.
HEAVING. The act of turning about a capstern, &c. by means of bars, or handspikes.
HEEL-ROPE. See ROPE.
HITCH. A noose, by which one rope is fastened to another, or to some object, as a ring, post, timber-head, &c.
HOIST OF A FLAG OR SAIL. That part which is towards the staff, or bent to a mast or stay.
HOISTING. Drawing up a weight by tackles.
HOLDING-ON. The act of pulling back and retaining any quantity of rope, acquired by the effort of a capstern, or tackle; also the emd of a stopper, nipper, &c. held by the hand.
HOOPS. Thin bars of iron, of circular, and other shapes. CLASP-HOOPS are similar to other hoops, but open with a hinge. BUOY-HOOPS are the wooden hoops that confine the buoy; and the wreaths of rope that go round the buoy, to which the straps are fastened. WOODEN-HOOPS are those which encircle masts, and to which the fore-leech of some sails are bent.
HORNS. The jaws, or semi-circular inner ends of booms and gaffs.
HORSE. A machine with which the operation of woolding os performed.
HORSES. Ropes for the men to stand upon, or hold by, &c. BOWSPRIT-HORSES are made fast at the ends, at a parallel height from the bowsprit, and serve as rails for the men to hold by, when going out upon the bowsprit. FLEMISH-HORSES are small horses under the yards without the cleats.
JIB-HORSES hang under the jib-boom, and are knotted at certain distances, to prevent the men's feet slipping. TRAVERSE-HORSES are of rope, or iron, for sails to travel on, &c. The one of rope is thick, and extended up and down, parallel to the mast; that on the fore-side is for hoisting or lowering the square-sail, whose yard is attached to the horse by a traveller, and slides up and down occasionally. The horse fixed abaft the mast is for the trysail of a snow, which slides up and down with hanks as a staysail. This is seldom used but in sloops of war, which occasionally assume the form of snows. HORSES OF IRON are thick iron rods, fastened at the ends athwart the deck of single-mast vessels, before the mast, for the foresail-sheet to travel on; and that abaft the mast, across the inside of the stern, on which travels the main-sheet-block. YARD-HORSES are ropes depending from the yards, for the men to stand upon in loosing, reefing, or furling the sails.
HOUNDS. That part of the mast-head which gradually projects on the starboard and larboard sides, beyond the cylindrical surface below.
HOUSE-LINE. See LINES.
JACK-BLOCK. A small block seized to the topgallant-mast-head, for sending the topgallant-yards up and down.
JAMBED. Obstructed and rendered immoveable.
JAWS. Two cheeks, forming a semi-circle, which enclose the after-part of the mast, so as to confine, by the help of the parral, the inner end of the boom or gaff.
JEERS. Tackles for hoisting or lowering the lower yards.
JEER-BITTS. See BITTS.
JEWEL-BLOCKS. Small blocks, seized to eye-bolts in the extremities of the upper yards, for hoisting the studding-sails by the halliards, which reeve through them.
JIB-BOOM. See BOOM.
JIB-HORSES. See HORSES.
JIGGER. A short rope fitted, with a block and a sheave, for holding on the cable as it is hove in by a windlass.
JIGGER-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
INHAULER. A rope employed to haul in the jib-boom, &c.
IRON-HORSES. See HORSES.
JUNK. Short pieces of old cable, used for mooring ships' sterns, or cut into smaller portions for making mats, rope-bands, points, gaskets, &c.
KECKLING. Any old rope wound about a cablem to preserve the surface of it from chafing.
KEVELS. Two crooked pieces of timber, whose lower ends rest in a step or foot nailed to the ship's sides; the heads branch out like horns, to belay ropes to.
KINKING. The curling up of a rope when twisted too hard, or drawn hastily out of the coil.
KNOTS. The fastenings by which one rope is joined to another; or the knobs formed on their ends to prevent their slipping.
LACING. Fastening the head of a sail to a mast, yard, gaff, &c. by a line turned spirally round them, and reeved through the eyelet-holes in the sail. When a sail is laced to a mast, it is best to take cross turns, backwards and forwards, on the fore-side of the mast only, so that the sail may slide up or down.
LANIARDS. Short small ropes to make fast the shrouds, stays, &c.
LASHERS. The ropes employed to lash, or secure particular objects, as jeers, &c.
LASHING. Fastening or securing one thing to another, with several turns of a rope.
LEADING-PART. That part of a tackle which is hauled upon.
LEGS. Short ropes which branch out into two or more parts, as the bowline-legs or bridles, buntline-legs, crowfoot-legs, &c.
LIFE-LINES. See LINES.
LIFTS. Ropes which suspend the outer-quarters of the yards, and raise or lower them. STANDING-LIFTS are made fast, and belong to yards that never require to be topped.
LINES. Cordage smaller than ropes, and formed of two or more fine strands of hemp; as HOUSE-LINE, made of three strands, used to seize blocks into their straps and the clues of sails; and to marl the skirts of sails to their bolt-ropes, &c. LOG-LINE, made of three or more strands, and used for the log, &c. MARLINE, made of two strands, used for the same purpose as house-line.
Some ropes are, from their situtations, termed lines; as BOWLINES, BUNTLINES, CLUE-LINES, FANCY-LINE, FURLING-LINE, GIRT-LINE, HEAD-LINE, LEECH-LINE, LIFE-LINES, NAVE-LINE, SLAB-LINE, SPILLING-LINE, TOW-LINE, and, TRACING-LINE.
BOWLINES are fastened on and near the middle of the leech of square sails, by two or three subordinate parts, called bridles; and are used to brace sideways, or close-haul to the wind, the weather, or windward, leeches of the sails forward; which are kept steady by the tension of the bowline. BUNTLINES are ropes fastened to the foot of square sails, to haul them up to their yards. CLUE-LINES are similar to the clue-garnets, and are used to square sails in general; whereas clue-garnets are confined to the main and fore courses. FANCY-LINE is a rope used to overhaul the brails of some fore and aft sails. FURLING-LINE is a small rope, or a line, used to fasten small sails to the yards, when furled. GIRT-LINE is a rope reeved through a single block, occasionally lashed to mast and sheer heads, to hoist up rigging, &c. HEAD-LINE is the line sewed along the upper edge of flags to strengthen them. LEECH-LINES are ropes used to truss up the sails. LIFE-LINES, for the preservation of the seamen, are worn hawser-laid rope: they make fast with two half hitches round the strap of the lift-block and jeer, or tye-blocks in the middle of the yard. NAVE-LINE is a tackle depending from the mast-head to the trusses, to keep them opposite the yards, whilst hoisting or lowering. SLAB-LINE is a rope used to truss up the foot of the main and fore courses occasionally, for the pilot or master to look forward underneath, as the ship advances. SPILLING-LINES are ropes reeved through blocks, lashed on each side of the quarter-blocks of the lower yards, the lead down before the sail, return upwards under the foot, and make fast round the yard with a timber hitch: spilling-lines of topsails have two legs, which are each made fast with a timber-hitch round the quarters of the topsail yards, then lead down on the aftside, return upwards under the foot of the sail, and reeve through a block on the foreside, lashed to the tye-block on the yard, and then lead upon deck abaft the mast. TOW-LINE is a small hawser, used to remove any vessel, by means of achors, capsterns, &c. TRACING-LINE is a small rope or tackle used to hoist any object to a higher station, and render it more convenient; such are the tracing-lines of the yard-tackles; the inner tracing-line hoists the block, and the outer tracing-line, the parts of the tackle.
LIZARD. An iron thimble spliced into the main-bowlines, and pointed over to hook a tackle to.
LOG-LINES. See LINES.
LOOP. A noose made in a rope.
LOOSING THE SAILS. Unfurling them for setting, or for drying, when wet.
LOWER SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
LOWER STAYS. See TACKLE.
MAIN-STAY-TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
MAIN-BOOM. See BOOM.
MAN-ROPES. See ROPES.
MARLINE. See LINE.
MARLINE-SPIKE. A tapered iron pin, with a globular head, used to make openings between the strands of ropes for introducing the ends of others through them: it is sometimes used as a lever to strain tight seizings, &c.
MARTINGAL. An ash bar, fixed downwards from the fore-side of the bowspit-cap, and by which the martingal-stay supports the jib-boom.
MASTS. Long cylindrical pieces of timber, to which are fastened the yards, sails, and rigging. See the treatise of masts.
MARTINGAL-STAY. See STAY.
MAST-COATS. Coverings made of well tarred canvas to prevent the water going down the mast-hole.
MAT. A thick texture made of spunyarn, strands of rope, or foxes, vowe or plaited together, and fastened upon masts, yards, &c. to prevent their chafing.
MESSENGER. A cable-laid rope, used to heave in the cable.
MESHES. The spaces between the lines of a netting.
MOUSE. A large knob, in the shape of a pear, formed on stays; also a smaller one round messengers, by intertwisting a small rope round the strands.
MOUSING A HOOK. Taking several rounds of spunyarn round the back and point of a hook, and fastening it, to prevent its unhooking.
NAVE-LINE. See LINES.
NETTING. A fence made by setting together the BIGHTS of small ropes, leaving uniform spaces or meshes between: it is used in different parts of a ship; thus, the BOARDING-NETTING is thrown over the sides, to prevent the enemies boarding. BOWSPRIT-NETTING is fastened at the outer end of the bowsprit to the horses, or man-ropes, to stow away the fore-topmast-staysail and jib. BREASTWORK, GANGWAY, QUARTER, and WAIST NETTINGS, are used to keep the hammacoes in the stantions. HEAD-NETTING is fastened to the horses in the head and upper rail, to save the men from slipping overboard. QUARTER-DECK-NETTING is suspended over the officers heads, to prevent any thing falling thereon, in time of action. TOP-NETTING is fastened to the rail, shrouds, and top, to preserve the men from falling.
To NIPPER or NIP ropes, is to stop them with several turns of rope-yarn, or spun-yarn, round each, and the ends made fast.
NIPPERS. Braided cordage 12 or 14 feet long, used in heaving in the cable by the viol, or messenger.
NORMAN. A short wooden bar, with a head, used in one of the holes of the windlass, when there is little strain from the cable.
OAKUM. Old ropes untwisted and picked small.
OVERHAULING. Extending the several parts of a tackle, or ropes, connected to blocks or dead-eyes, to any distance required.
OUTHAULER. A rope made fast to the tack of the jib, to haul ot out by.
PAINTER. A rope secured to the bow of a boat to make her fast with.
PANCH. A covering of wood, or a thick texture made of plated rope-yarn, larger than a mat, to preserve the masts, &c. from chafing.
PARCELLING. Wrapping worn canvas round ropes, to prepare them for serving.
PARRAL. A sort of collar, by which the yards are fastened at the slings to the masts, so that they may be hoisted or lowered with facility. Of parrals there are four sorts, viz, one sort is formed of a single rope, covered with spunyarn or leather, and having an eye spliced in each end; another sort is formed of two ropes, which reeve alternately through a rib and truck, and have an eye in one end; a third sort, calculated to confine the jaws of a jib-boom to the mast, is formed of a rope which reeves through several trucks without ribs; and a fourth sort is formed of a truss, by which the yard may at any time be slackened from the mast, or may be confined close by tackles connected to their lower ends, which lead upon deck, and are most convenient for the lower yards. The first and second sorts are used for topsail and topgallant yards.
PARRAL-TRUCKS. See TRUCKS.
PASSAREE. Any rope fastened round the cat-head and fore-tack, to keep tight the leech of the sail in light winds.
To PAY OUT. To let a cable or other rope run out of the vessel.
PEEK-HALLIARDS. The ropes by which the outer end of a gaff or yard, that hangs oblique tp a mast, is hoisted.
PENDENTS. Large, but short, ropes which go over the mast-heads, and to which are hooked the main and fore tackles. There are, besides, many other pendents, with a block or tackle attached to one end, all of which serve to transmit the effort of their tackles to some other object: such are the BILL-PENDENT, BRACE-PENDENTS, PREVENTER-BRACE-PENDENTS, BURTON-PENDENTS, FISH-PENDENTS, GUY-PENDENTS, MAIN-SATY-TACKLE-PENDENT, PENDENTS OF TACKLES, QUARTER-TACKLE-PENDENTS, REEF-TACKLE-PENDENTS, RUDDER-PENDENTS, STAY-TACKLE-PENDENTS, TOP-ROPE-PENDENTS, TRUSS-PENDENTS, VANG-PENDENTS, WINDING-TACKLE-PENDENTS, and YARD-TACKLE-PENDENTS.
PINS, for belaying ropes to, are turned wooden pins, with a shoulder near the middle; the small end is driven through the rough tree rails, or racks of thin plank made on purpose. Iron belaying-pins are round, taper from the middle to each end, and are driven in the rails, or racks, to belay the ropes to, by taking several cross turns about them.
POINTING. Tapering the end of a rope, or splice, and working over the reduced part a small close netting, with an even number of knittles twisted from the same, to prevent the end untwisting, and to go more easily through a block or hole.
POINTS. Short pieces of braided cordage plaited together.
PORT-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
PREVENTER. An additional rope employed, sometimes to support or answer the purpose of another that has a great strain or is injured. Such are the PREVENTER-BRACES, SHROUDS, STAYS, &c.
PREVENTER-STAYS. See STAYS.
PREVENTER-SHROUDS. See SHROUDS.
PREVENTER-STAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
PREVENTER-BRACE-PENDENT. See PENDENTS.
PUDDENING. A thick wreath, made of rope, fastened about the main and fore masts of a ship, to prevent their yards from falling down, when the ropes that support them are injured.
QUARTER-CLOTH. Canvas nailed with sennit along the rough-tree-rail on the quarter-deck, and to the plank-sheer, to keep out the spray of the sea.
RACK. A short thin plank, with holes made through it, containing a number of belaying-pins, used instead of cleats: it is seized to the shrouds, and nailed over the bowsprit or windlass.
RACK. A long shell, containing a number of sheaves, formerly fixed over the bowsprit to lead in the running rigging; at present, wooden saddles, with holes in them, are nailed on the bowsprit for this purpose, being more out of the way, and less liable to be out of order.
RACKING A TACKLE. Fastening together the fall of a tackle, or any two ropes, by passing two or more cross turns with rope-yarn round each part, and as many round turns above them; making fast the ends with a reef-knot.
RANGE-CLEATS. Large cleats, with two arms, bolted in the waist of ships, to belay the tacks and sheets to,
RATLINGS. Small ropes which cross the shrouds horizontally, at equal distances from the deck upwards, forming ladders to go up or down from the mast-heads.
REEF. That portion of a sail contained between the head or foot, and a row of eyelet-holes parallel thereto, which portion is taken up to reduce the surface of the sail when the wind encreases. Sails, according to their sizes, have from one to four reefs. A BAG-REEF is the fourth, or lower, reef of a topsail. A BALANCE-REEF crosses boom-mainsails diagonally, from the nock to the end of the upper reef-band on the after-leech.
REEF-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
REEF-TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
To REEVE. To pass a rope through a block or hole.
RELIEVING-TACKLES. See TACKLES.
RIBS OF A PARRAL. Short flat pieces of wood, having a hole near each end, through which the parral-rope is reeved.
RIDING-BIT. See BITS.
RIDGE-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
RING-TAIL-BOOM. See BOOM.
RING-ROPE. See ROPES.
RING-BOLT. An iron bolt, with a ring fitted in an eye in the end.
ROLLING-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
ROPE-BANDS. Braided cordage, used to fasten the heads of sails to their respective yards.
ROPES. All cordage in general above one inch in circumference, which bear different names, according to their various uses. BELL-ROPE is hawser-laid rope, 9 to 12 feet in length, which bends round a thimble in the eye of the bell-strap ir crank. In the middle of the rope is a diamond knot, and at the end a double wall knot, crowned. BOLT-ROPE, is the rope sewed to the skirts, or edges of sails. BOUY-ROPE, a rope fastened to the buoy of the anchor. BREAST-ROPE is fastened along the laniards of the shrouds, for safety, when heaving the lead in the chains. DAVIT-ROPE, the lashing which secures the davit to the shrouds, when out of use. ENTERING-ROPES hang from the upper part of the stantions, along-sides the ladder, at the gangways. GUEST-ROPE is fastened to an eye-bolt in the ship's side, and to the outer end of a boom projecting from the shipäs side, by guys, to keep the bouts clear off the sides. HEEL-ROPE is to haul out the bowsprits of cutters, &c. MAN-ROPES are for the security of the men, when going out on the bowsprit. PARRAL-ROPES are to connect the ribs and trucks of parrals together. PASSING-ROPES lead round the ship, through eyes in the quarter, waist, gangway, and forecastle stantions, forward to the knight-heads. RING-ROPES are occasinally made fast of the ring-bolts in the deck, and, by cross truns round the cable, to confine it securely in stormy weather. SLIP-ROPE is to trice the bight of the cable into the head; and is also employed in casting off a vessel, till got in a tide's way, &c. TILLER-ROPE is the rope by which the tiller is worked. TOP-ROPE, is a rope reeved through the heel of a topmast, to raise it by its tackle to the mast-head.
ROPE-YARN. One of the threads of which a rope is composed.
ROUGH-TREE-RAIL. A rail, breast high, along the sides of the poop and quarter-deck.
ROUNDING. Serving the cable with worn rope, or sennit to secure it from chafing.
ROWSING. Pulling upon a cable or rope, without the assistance of capsterns, &c.
ROYAL-STAY. See STAY.
ROYAL-YARD. See YARD.
RUDDER-COATS. Covereings made of well tarred canvas, to prevent the water from coming in at the rudder-hole.
RUDDER-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
RUDDER-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
RUNNER. A single rope, connected with tackles, which transmits its effort the same as if the tackle was the whole length; such are the BREAST-BACKSTAY-RUNNER, RUNNERS OF TACKLES, &c.
RUNNING-RIGGING. All that part of rigging which traverses through blocks, &c.
SADDLES FOR BOOMS. Small blocks of wood, hollowed on their lower and upper sides, and nailed on the yards and bowsprits, for retaining booms in a steady position. The lower-side is hollowed, to fit the convexity of the yard it is intended for; and the upper-side to the figure of the boom, as a channel for it to slide on. SADDLES, on the bowsprit, for leading the rigging through, are semi-circles made to fit the convex surface of the bowsprit; they are rounded on the back, and have several holes made in the sides, through which the rigging is led, when they are nailed to the inner part of the bowsprit.
SAILS. See the treatise on sails.
SEIZING. Joining two ropes, or the two ends of one rope, together, &c. by making several close turns of small rope, line, or spunyarn, round them. END-SEIZING is a round seizing on the end of a rope. THROAT-SEIZING is the first seizing clapt on where a rope, or ropes, cross each other. MIDDLE-SEIZING, is a seizing between a throat and end seizing. EYE-SEIZING, is a round seizing next to the eye of a shroud, &c.
SELVAGEE. Several rope yarns turned into a circular form, and marled together with spunyarn. It is used to attach the hook of a tackle to any rope, or stay, to extend, or set them on; two or more truns of the selvage are taken round the same, in which the hook is fixed.
SENNIT. Braided cordage, formed of rope-yarn.
SERVING. Encircling a rope with line or spunyarn, &c. to preserve it from being chafed.
SERVING-MALLET. A cylindrical piece of wood, with a handle in the middle: it is used for serving, and has a groove along the surface opposite to the handle, which fits the convexity of the rope to be served.
SETTING THE SAILS. Loosing and expanding them.
SETTING-UP. Encreasing the tension of the shrouds, stays, and backstays, to secure the masts by tackles, laniards, &c.
SHACKLE. A sort of iron ring, to hook a tackle to.
SHANK-PAINTER. A short rope and chain bolted to the ship's sides, above the fore channels, to hang or secure the shank of an anchor to; the flukes resting in a chock on the gunwale.
SHEEP-SHANK. A sort of knot made on backstays, &c. to shorten them.
SHEET. A rope or tackle fastened to the clues of sails, to retain them in any direction.
SHEET-STOPPERS. See STOPPERS.
SHIFTING-BACKSTAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
SHROUDS. A range of large ropes, extended from the mast-heads to the larboard and starboard sides of the vessel, to support the masts, &c.
The shrouds are denominated from the places to which the belong; thus: the fore, main, and mizen shrouds; fore, main, and mizen-topmast shrouds, &c.
The number and size of the shrouds are in proportion to the size of the masts, as in the annexed Tables of Dimensions.
BOWSPRIT-SHROUDS, are those which support the bowsprit. BUMKIN-SHROUDS, are those which support the bumkins. FUTTOCK-SHROUDS, are those which connect the efforts of the topmast shrouds to the lower shrouds. BENTINCK-SHROUDS, are additional shrouds, to support the masts in heavy gales. PREVENTER-SHROUDS, are similar to bentinck-shrouds, and are used in bad weather to ease the lower rigging.
SHROUD-TRUCKS. See TRUCKS.
SHROUD-STROPPERS. See STOPPERS.
SLINGS. Short ropes, used to hang the yards to the masts, &c. or to encircle a bale or cask, and suspend it whilst hoisting or lowering; and also the secure buoys, &c.
To SLUE. To turn a mast, or boom, about in its cap, or boom-iron, &c.
SNAKING. A sort of fastening to confine the outer turns of seizings, &c.
SNAKING THE STAYS, or ropes, on the quarters, instead of netting, is seizing proportioned sized rope, at angles, from one stay or rope to the other, alternately, in a parallel direction along the whole length. Its use to stays is, that one part may remain perfect and independent of the other, should it be shot away.
SNOTTER. A short rope, spliced together at the ends, and served with spunyarn, or covered with hide: it is seized to the size of the mast, leaving a bight to fit the lower end of a sprit, which it confines to the mast.
SPANS. Short ropes, having a block, thimble, or eye, spliced into each end; the middle is hitched round a mast, yard, gaff, cap, or stay, from whence the ends branch out. Spans are sometimes fastened at both ends, and have a block in the bight. They are used to lead ropes through, which pass through the blocks or thimbles, to encrease power, or to prevent their swinging about.
SPANNING OF BOOMS. Confining them by ropes.
SPANNING OF RUNNERS. Taking several turns with small rope round both runners abaft the mast, and strapping the turns.
SPANISH WINDLASS. See WINDLASS.
SPARS. Small fir-trees.
SPILLING-LINES. See LINES.
SPLICING. Joining one rope to another, by interweaving their ends, or uniting the end of a rope into part of it. There are different sorts of splices, viz. the CUNT-SPLICE, which formes an eye in the middle of a rope: the EYE-SPLICE forms an eye or circle at the end of a rope on itself, or round a block, &c. The LONG-SPLICE is made to rejoin a rope or ropes intended to reeve through a block without encreasing its size: the SHORT-SPLICE is made by untwisting the ends of a rope, or of two ropes, and placing the strands on one between those of the other. The TAPERED-SPLICE is chiefly used on cables, and is made as the short-splice, but is gradually tapered toward each end, by cutting away some of the rope-yarns, and is served over: the DRAWING-SPLICE, is a splice used for joining cables together, and is esteemed the best for this purpose, as it may be readily undone.
SPRIT. A small yard, or pole, by which spritsails are extended. The foot of it is fixed in a SNOTTER, which encircles the mast, and it crosses the sail diagonally, the upper end being attached to the peek.
SPUNYARN. Two or more rope-yarns twisted together.
SQUARE-RIGGED. A term applied to those ships which have long yards, at right angles with the length of the keel, and low masts: it is thence used in contra-distinction to those vessels whose sails are extended by stays, latten-yards, &c.
SQUARE-SAIL-BOOM. See BOOM.
STAFF. A light pole on which the flags are hoisted. The ENSIGN-STAFF, is the principal staff, and is erected on the stern, within-side the taffarel, to display the ensign. FLAG-STAFFS are also erected on the mast-heads, or formed by the upper part of the topgallant masts, to hoist the flags, royals, &c. The JACK-STAFF is a short staff erected on the aftside of the bowsprit-cap, to expand the jack.
STAGE. A small platform made of grating, or of short boards, for men to stand upon to fix the rigging toward the outer end of the bowsprit, &c.
STANDING-PART. That part of a tackle which is made fast.
STANDING-PART OF A ROPE, (in the making of knots, &c.) means the principal part of a rope, in contra-distinction to the end by which the knot is formed; or it may be said to be that part of a rope which is at rest, and is acted upon by the end.
STANTIONS OF THE NETTINGS. Square wooden pillars, let into the upper part of the ship's side, or small pillars of iron, used to support the nettings, awnings, &c.
STAYS. Strong ropes, to support the masts forward, which extend from their upper parts, at the mast-head, toward the fore part of the ship. The stays are denominated from the masts, LOWER-STAYS, TOPMAST-STAYS, TOPGALLANT-STAYS, FLAGSTAFF or ROYAL STAYS, &c.
BACKSTAYS, BREAST, SHIFTING, and STANDING, are stays which support the topmast and topgallant masts from aft; they reach from the heads of the topmast and topgallant-mast to the channel on each side of the ship, and assist the shrouds when strained by a press of sail. The shifting backstays change according to the action of the wind upon the sails, whether aft, or upon the quarter. BOB-STAYS, are stays used to confine the bowsprit down upon the stem, and counteract the force of the stays, which draw it upwards. STAYSAIL-STAYS, are those stays on which the staysails are extended. The JIB-STAY is similar to the staysail-stays, and extends the jib. The MARTINGAL-STAY supports the jib-boom, as the bobstays support the bowsprit. PREVENTER-SPRING-STAYS, are subordinate stays to support their respective stays, and supply their places in case of any accident. SKIATIC-STAYS are ropes used for hoisting, or lowering, burdens in or out of ships.
STAYSAIL-STAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
STAY-TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
STERNFAST. A rope to confine the sterns of boats, &c.
STIRRUPS. Short ropes, which have their upper ends plaited and nailed round the yards: eyes are made in their lower end, through which the horses are reeved, to keep them parallel to the yards.
STOOLS. Small channels, fixed to the ship's sides, to contain the dead-eyes for the backstays.
STOP. Several turns of spunyarn taken round the end of a rope, similar to a seizing, to fasten it to another rope. Also, a projection left on the upper part of topgallant-masts, &c. to prevent the rigging from sliding down.
STOPPERS. Short ropes, used to check the cable, suspend weighty bodies, and retain the shrouds, &c. in a fixed position, after being damaged, or otherwise. ANCHOR-STOPPERS are used to suspend the anchor, when catted: BIT-STOPPERS are those stoppers used to check the cable: DECK-STOPPERS are used to retain the cable when the ship is riding at anchor: DOG-STOPPERS are used as additional securities when the ship is riding in heavy gales, or bringing up a ship with much sternway, to prevent the cable from snapping at the bitts, and to ease the deck-stoppers: WING-STOPPERS are used for the same purpose as dog-stoppers: SHROUD-STOPPERS are used to confine a shroud together, when damaged, or shot. FORE-TACK, and SHEET, STOPPERS, are for securing the tacks and sheets, till belayed.
STRAPS. Wreaths of ropes which are spliced round blocks, or used to encircle a yard or any large rope, by which tackles, &c. may be connected to them.
STUDDINGSAIL-BOOM. See BOOM.
STUDDINGSAIL-YARDS. See YARDS.
To SURGE, To let a cable, or rope, round a capstern slide up it, by gently slacking the part held on.
To SWAY. To haul down upon a rope or cable.
SWIFTERS. The after shrouds on each side of the main and fore masts: they are above all the other shrouds, and are used as an additional security to the masts. SWIFTER is also a small rope used to continue the bars of a capstern in their holes, while the men are heaving it about; and likewise a large rope, sometimes used lengthways round a boat under the gunwale, to strengthen it, and defend it from other boats which may strike against it.
SWIFTERING OF SHROUDS. Stretching of them by tackles, to prevent any future extension.
SWIGGING OFF. Pulling upon the middle of a tight rope that is made fast at both ends.
TACKS. Ropes used to confine the foremost lower corners of course, and of staysails, and other fore and aft sails; also the rope employed to haul out the lower corners of studdingsails. TACK is also applied to that part of a sail to which the tack is fastened.
TACK OF A FLAG. A line spliced into the eye at the bottom of the tabling, for securing the flag to the haliard.
TACK-STOPPER. See STOPPER.
TACKLE. A machine formed by the connection of a rope or fall, with an assemblage of blocks. The number of parts of the fall is more or less, in proportion to the effects intended to be produced. That part of the fall which is fastened to one of the blocks, is called the STANDING-PART, and the other parts of it are called the RUNNING-part.
Tackles are used to raise, or remove, weighty bodies; to support the masts, extend the rigging, or expand the sails. They are either moveable, as connecting with a runner, or have one part fixed to an immovable station, by a hook, lashing, &c.
A tackle is a convenient kind of purchase, but subject to much friction. Its power will be, the friction not considered, as the number of parts of the fall that are applied to sustain the weight. If a tackle consists of a double and a single block, and the weight to be hoisted is hung to the double block there will be four parts of the fall; and the weight resting upon four ropes, equally stretched, each must bear the same part of the weight. Thus, suppose the weight hung to the double block be four hundred, then one hundred applied to the hauling part of the fall will suspend it; and if as much more power be applied as will overcome the friction, it will purchase the weight: but, had the weight been hooked to the single block, it would have rested on three ropes only, each of which would bear a third of the weight; therefore a third of the weight being applied to the hoisting part of the fall, would suspend the weight, when hooked to the single block; and as much more power being applied as will overcome the friction, would purchase the weight.
Ropes, if tight laid, will not easily bend round small sheaves, but will take up a considerable part of the power to force them into their proper direction; hence it follows, that blocks with small pins, large sheaves, and slack-laid ropes, are the best materials to obviate friction, and make tackles with.
The blocks that are fixed, are only for the convenience of turning the direction of the fall, they add nothing to the power of the purchase, but, on the contrary, destroy so much as is necessary to overcome their friction, and are therefore to be avoided as much as possible.
The ANCHOR-STOCK TACKLE is composed of a double block, and a single block, strapped, with a hook and thimble. BOOM TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with tails, and are used in getting the studding-sail -booms in or out. BOWLINE TACKLE is composed of a long tackle, and a single block, strapped, with a hook and thimble: it is used to bowse up the main-bowline, when the ship is upon a wind. BURTON TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, and are used with pendents, to set up the shrouds, support the topsail-yards, &c. A FISH TACKLE is composed of a long tackle, and a single block, strapped, with eyes, and is used with a pendent, to fish the anchor, and get into its place. GARNET TACKLE is composed of a double block, and a single block, strapped, with ahook and thimble: it is hooked to the skiatick-stay in merchant ships, and is used to hoist goods in or out. JIGGER TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with tails, and are used for topping the main and fore yards by the lifts, &c. LUFF TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with a hook and thimble, and are used occasionally at any of the ship. OUTHALLER TACKLE is composed of two single blocks, strapped, with tails, and is used to bowse out the jib-boom. PORT TACKLES are used to hoist and lower the port-lids. QUARTER TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with eyes, and the lower blocks with a hook and thimble: they are used to hoist up water, and provisions. REEF TACKLES are composed of two double, or two single, blocks; one block is spliced into a pendent, and the other is strapped, with an eye: they are used to draw the extremities of the reefs close up to the yard-arms, for reefing the sail. RELIEVEING TACKLES are luff tackles, used to the fore-end of the tiller, when the tiller ropes are damaged. RIDGE TACKLE is composed of a double block, and a single block, strapped, with an eye: it is used to suspend the awning in the middle. ROLLING TACKLES are luff tackles, used to the topsail-yards, to support them, and preserve the parrals. RUDDER TACKLES are luff tackles, used to the topsail-yards, to support them, and preserve the parrals. RUDDER TACKLES are composed of long tackle blocks, and single blocks, strapped, with hooks and thimbles: they are used to have, or direct the rudder, when any accident happens to the tiller. RUNNER TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, and a pendent; the lower blocks are strapped, with ahook and thimble: they are used to set up the shrouds, and to get the mast-heads forward, for staying the masts. STAY TACKLES, MAIN AND FORE, are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with hooks and thimbles, except the blocks spliced into a pendent: they are used for getting the provisions, &c. out of the fore and main hold, and for getting the boats in or out. The pendent, formerly, travelled on the stay, by iron thimbles; but this is now discontinued in the Royal Navy, as they much injured the stay, by friction. STAYSAIL STAY TACKLES re composed of double and single blocks; the lower blocks are strapped, with a hook and thimble; they are used to set up the jib, and other staysail-stays. SHIFTING BACKSTAY TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks, strapped, with a hook and thimble, and are used to set up the shifting backstays, where wanted. TOPMAST STAY, and PREVENTER STAY, TACKLES are composed of long tackle blocks, and single blocks; the lower blocks are strapped, with a hook and thimble; they are used to set up the topmast, and preventer stays. FORE TOPGALLANT STAY TACKLE is composed of a double and single block, and is used to set up the fore topgallant stay. TACK TACKLE is composed of a double and a single block, strapped with hooks and thimbles; and is used for bowsing down the tack of fore and aft mainsails. The TOP TACKLE is composed of double or treble blocks: it is attached to the top-rope-pendents, and used to erect the topmasts, at the heads of the lower masts. TRUSS TACKLES are composed of two double blocks, strapped, with hooks and thimbles, and are used to secure the lower yards to their masts, being hooked to the truss-pendent. WINDING TACKLE is composed of a four-fold and a treble block, or a treble and a double block, strapped, with eyes: it is atatched to the winding-tackle-pendent, and is chiefly used to get in or out the guns. YARD TACKLES are composed of double and single blocks; the double blocks are spliced into the lower ends of pendents, and the single blocks are strapped, with hooks and thimbles: they are used to hoist the boats in or out.
TACKLE-FALL. That end of the rope of a tackle which is bowsed on, or the rope which composes the tackle.
TACKLE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
TAIL. The long end of a block-strap, by which the block is attached to any place required.
TARPAWLING. Canvas paid over with tar, and used to cover the hatches, to prevent water from coming in; and to cover the blocks at the sheer-heads of hulks, &c.
THIMBLES. A kind of iron ring, whose outsides are grooved, to receive ropes of different fires. They are fixed to the rigging for blocks to be hooked to, and for ropes to reeve through, &c.
THROAT. The inner end of a gaff, or boom.
TILLAR-ROPE. See ROPE.
THRUMMING. Interplacing short pieces of thrumbs, or rope-yarn, in a regular manner, into matting, through intervals made by a fid.
TIMENOGUY. A Rope fastened at one end to the fore-shrouds, and nailed at the other end to the anchor-stock, on the bow, to prevent the fore-sheet from entangling.
TONGUE. A short piece of rope spliced into the upper part of standing-backstays, &c. to the size of the topmast-heads: it is served over with spun-yarn, and is used to keep them open to the size of the mast-heads.
TOP. A platform, surrounding the lower mast-heads, to extend the topmast-shrouds, &c.
TOP-ROPE. See ROPE.
TOP-ROPE-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
TOP-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
TOPMAST-STAY-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
TOPPING. The act of drawing one of the yard-arms higher than the other, by slackening one lift, and pulling upon the other.
WORMING. Winding a rope close along the cuntlines, to strengthen it, and make a fair surface for service.
TOPPING-LIFT. A tackle to suspend, or TOP, the outer end of a gaff, boom, &c.
TOPSAIL-YARDS. See YARDS.
TOPGALLANT-YARDS. See YARDS.
TOP-NETTING. See NETTING.
TRACING-LINE. See LINE.
TRAVELLER. A large iron timble, whose diameter is larger than the common thimbles, though the surface is smaller. Travellers are used to facilitate the decent of topgallant-yards by the back-stays, the travellers being placed on the back-stays, and surrounded by a short rope, or tail, which is fastened round the yard-arms. The JIB-TRAVELLER is a circular iron hoop, with a hook and shackle, used to haul out the tack of the jib.
TRAVERSE-HORSES. See HORSES.
TREE-NAILS. Cylindrical wooden pins, used by riggers for levers, or heavers; also the wooden pins by which the ship's planks are fastened to the timbers.
TRESTLE-TREES. Two strong bars of oak, bolted to the 'thwartship sides of the lower mast heads, to support the top, and weight of the topmast; and to the topmast heads, to supoort the topgallant-masts, &c.
TRUCKS. Small pieces of wood, of various shapes, used for different purposes. FLAG-STAFF-TRUCKS are round flat pieces of elm, with a small sheave on each side. They are fixed, by a square mortise-hole made in the middle, upon the upper end of flag-staffs, and are used to reeve the haliards. PARRAL-TRUCKS are round balls of elm, or other wood, and have a hole through the middle, in which a rope is reeved, to form the parrals. SEIZING-TRUCKS are similar to parral-trucks, but have a score the middle to admit a seizing. They are used to lead ropes through. SHROUD-TRUCKS are short cylindrical pieces of elm, &c. they have a hole trough the middle, lengthways, a groove down the side, of the size of the shrouds, and a score round the middle to admit a seizing. They are seized to the shrouds, to lead ropes through, that they may be more readily found.
TRUSS. A rope employed to confine or slacken the lower-yards to or from their respective masts.
TRUSS-TACKLE. See TACKLES.
TRUSS-PENDENTS. See PENDENTS.
TYE. A sort of runner, or large rope, used to convey the effort of the tackle to hoist the upper yards and gaff.
VANGS. The braces that keep steady the peek of gaff sails and fore-and-aft sails.
VANG-PENDENT. See PENDENTS.
To VEER AWAY. To let go a rope gently.
WARP. A hawser, used to remove a ship from one place to another.
WARP, or more properly WOOF, is the twine or thread WOVEN across the knittles in pointing.
WARP OF SHROUDS. The first given length, taken from the bolster at the mast-head to the foremost dead-eye.
WHIP. A small single tackle, formed by connecting the fall to a single block, or with two blocks, the one fixed, and the other moveable: it is used to hoist light bodies out of the hold, &c.
To WHIP. To turn a piece of pack-thread, &c. upon the end of a rope, to prevent its unravelling.
WHIP UPON WHIP. The greatest purchase that can be gained by blocks, which is formed by fixing the end of one whip upon another whip fall. Thus two single block will afford the same purchase as a tackle, having a double and a single block, and with much less friction. This purchase should therefore be used whenever the length of the hoist will admit of it. To topsail, and topgallant-yards, that hoist with a single tye, there is sufficient room to apply this purchase as haliards, which will overhaul with great facility.
WINDING TACKLE. See TACKLE.
WINDING TACKLE-PENDENT. See PENDENT.
WINDLASS. A machine, used in most merchant ships, to answer the purpose of a capstern. A SPANISH WINDLASS is formed of an iron bolt, placed in a hole, which is hove round by a woolder that acts as a lever for turning it round. It is used to stretch small rigging for serving, &c. &c.
WOOLDING. Winding several close turns of rope in a tight manner round masts and yards, that are made of several united pieces, to strengthen and confine the same altogether.
YARDS. Long cylindrical pieces of fir timber hung upon the masts of ships, to expand the sails to the wind. The lower yards to which the courses are bent, are the largest; such are the main, fore, and mizen yards which, except the mizen, hang to the masts at right angles with the ship's length. The MIZEN-YARD, hangs obliquely to the mizen-mast, parallel to the ship's length. The TOPSAIL-YARDS which expand the topsail, hang to the topmasts, next above the lower yards. The TOPSAIL-GALLANT-YARDS, which expand the topgallant-sails, hang above them; and the ROYAL-YARDS, which expand the royal-sails are hung above the topgallant-yards. The CROSS-JACK-YARD is used to expand the foot of the mizen topsail; and the topsail, or square-sail, of vessels with one mast. The DRIVER-YARD is a small yard, which expands the head of the driver without the peck of the gaff, to which it is hoisted by haliards. STUDDING-SAIL-YARDS, hang to the extremities of the yards, and by these are expanded the heads of the studding-sails.
YARD-TACKLE. See TACKLE.
YARD-HORSES. See HORSES.
Transcribed by Lars Bruzelius
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Copyright © 1999 Lars Bruzelius.