Falconer: Marine Dictionary, 1780

p 42:
Bolt, is generally a cylindrical pin of iron, of which there are various sorts, used for sundry occasions in shipbuilding.
The bolts are principally employed either to unite several members of a ship's frame into one solid piece, or to fasten any moveable body on a particular occasion. Those which are calculated for the former purpose have commonly small round heads, somewhat platted, on the contrary, the bolts which are intended for the latter use, have either a large round head, as those of the chains, . . .
The bolts are short or long, according to the thickness of the timber wherein they are to be lodged: they penetrate either quite through the pieces into which they are driven, or to a certain determinate depth. The last of these, called a rag-bolt, is retained in it's situation by means of several barbs, Fig. 2. which, fastening into the timbers, prevent the bolts from loosening from it's station by working of the ship. . . .
Those bolts, which have the largest of the round-heads, are called fenderbolts, being driven into the wales, stem, or sides of some small vessels of burthen, as lighters, beancods, prames, &c. to defend their timber-work, from the shock of any other vessels which may fall aboard by accident.

p 298:
Tree-nails, certain long cylindrical wooden pins, employed to connect the planks of a ship's side and bottom to the corresponding timbers.
The tree-nails are justly esteemed superior to spike-nails or bolts, which are liabled to rust, and loosen, as well as to rot the timber; but it is necessary that the oak of which they are formed should be solid, close, and replete with gum, to prevent them from breaking and rotting in the ship's frame. They ought also to be well dried, so as to fill their holes when they are swelled with moisture. They have usually one inch in thickness to 100 feet in the vessel's length; so that the tree-nails of a ship of 100 feet long, are one inch in diameter; and one inch and a half for a ship of 150 feet.

William Falconer: An Universal Dictionary of the Marine: or, a Copious Explanation of the Technical Terms and Phrases Employed in the Construction, Equipment, Furniture, Machinery, Movements, and Military Operations of a Ship. Illustrated with Variety of Original designs of Shipping, in different Situations; Together with separate Views of their Masts, Sails, Yards, and Rigging. To which is annexed, a Translation of the French Sea-Terms and Phrases, collected from the Works of Mess. Du Hamel, Aubin, Saverien, &c. By William Falconer, Author of The Shipwreck. A New Editions, Corrected.
T. Cadell, London, 1780. 4to, (10), 412 pp, ill, 15 plates. First published in 1765.

Transcribed by Lars Bruzelius

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