THe Author of this Book would have his Reader look upon it no otherwise than a small Essay or Forerunner of abundance of excellent researches of his Curiosity, which he saith he is preparing for the publick. His main design in this work he affirms to have been no other, than to reduce into Art, as methodically as he could, a Science so necessary and useful to the State, to render it familiar, and to quicken chose that are knowing in the Mathematicks and in Naval Architecture, to enquire after infallible ways of making Ships sail better, and to find our the just weight of a Ships burden, and its true Symmetry, and so to bring this Art to perfection.
The Order, by him observ'd in this Treaty, is this: In the first Book he delivers the Terms of Geometry, and the Use of the Compasses necessary to represent the plan and the preportion of a Ship; as also the usual Terms of Marine; the Definitions of the several sorts of Vessels; the Proportions and Measures of all the parts of a Ship, exhibited in their several figures; a general Description of all the Instruments, Workmen, and other necessaries for equipping a Fleet to go to Sea; together with an account of the Charges of building a Man of War of 106, and of another of 115 feet by the Keel. To which is added a list of the Officers, necessary to command and defend a Man of War; as also the Number and Names of the Men of War and their Officers now in the service of his French Majesty.
In the second Book, he gives the explication of the Terms for the building of a Gally and Chaloup; and withal enumerates the several parts of them, represented also by their figures; adding likewise a general Description of all necessaries for fitting out such Vessels, so as to keep six Months at Sea; together with the Orders of his King touching the Salutes at Sea.
The third Book contains the Tables of Longitude and Latitude of Places, and likewise of the Tydes, and their Currents; together with the Routs, Courses and Distances of the principal Ports of all the four parts of the World, and the Shallows, Rocks and other dangers therein.
And forasmuch as the Building of Ships serves principally for Trade, the Author hath, for the sake of Merchants, annexed the Routier of the East and West-Indies, extracted out of the most modern and best Authors, containing above 30 Navigations, together with the proper Seasons to make those Voyages, and the several Soundings, Ankerings, and Sea-ports: Promising withal to publish in due time another Treatise under the Title of, The Stience of the Pilot.
Having thus given the Reader a general view of the whole, it may not be amiss, to acquaint him with some particularities to be found in this Treatise. As,
1. That in the first part of it there is to be found a particular explication of the Proportion to be observed in the building of Ships from 60 feet by the Keel, to Ships of 140 feet; and likewise of the proportion to be observed for Men of War, from 400 Tuns upwards to 2000 Tuns; together with a Table to find the proportions for Men of War of the several rates, and for the several parts of them, and their respective Guns.
2. A List of the French Fleet in the year 1671.
3. A List of the Men of War built since the year 1671.
4. A particular Discourse of the General motion of the Sea, which this Author, amongst many others, affirms to be from East in West, inclining towards the North when the Sun hath passed the Equinoctial Northward; and that, during the time the Sun is in the Northern Signs; but the contrary way, after the Sun hath repassed the said Equinoctial Southward: Adding, that when this general motion is changed, the diurnal flux is changed likewise; whence it comes to pass, that the Tides in divers places come in during one part of the year, and go out the other; as on the coasts of Norway in the Indies, at Goa, Gochin-China, &c. where whilst the Sun is in the Summer-signs, the Sea runs to the shoar, when the Winter-signs, from it. On the most Southern coasts of Tunquin and China, for the six Summer-months the diurnal course runs from the North with the Ocean; but the Sun having repassed the Line towards the South, the Course declines also Southward. Those that sail from the coast of Peru Westward, when the Sun is in the Equinoctial, have the Winds and Tides directly from East to West, between the Tropicks, and in a little time Ships arrive from the Molucques to Peru. But when the Sun is in the Northern signs, the course of the Sea and the Wind tends Northward: And the Sun being in his greatest declination, in the Tropick of Cancer, the Winds and Tides of the East extend themselves unto the 30th degree of Northern Latitude, and sometimes further. On the contrary, those that sail in the Southern Hemisphere, are obliged to approach to the Line to meet the Eastern Winds. Again, when the Sun hath passed the Line Southward, the Eastern Winds and Tides extend themselves unto the 40th degree of Southern Latitude; and therefore those that navigate in the Northern Hemisphere, are constrain'd in the Pacifique Sea to decline Southward to the Equinoctial, to meet the Winds and Tides of the East for the Molucques and Philippines.
5. Notice is taken, that, some years since, a motion hath been found in the Ocean, that gives a slight motion to the whole Ocean in general; not that 'tis visible, but yet sufficiently perceived by Pilots: Forasmuch as the English have observ'd, that they sail more speedily, with the same wind, in going from England to Spain, than from Spain to England. The Spaniards also have noted, that they sometimes went out of Spain into the West-Indies in 24 hours; but, that they could not return, how favourable soever the weather was to them, in less than four months.
6. Concerning the particular Voyages, described in the Routier above-intimated, they are, 1. A Voyage from France to the Cape of Good Hope. 2. From the Cape of Lopo Gonsalues to the River Congo and Angola, on the coast of Guiny and Ethiopia. 3. From Lisbon to Malacca in October, to arrive there in April, which is the time that the West-winds reign on the Indian Coasts. 4. From the Cape of Good Hope to Mosambique and Goa, when one passeth betwixt the Firm Island and the Isle of St. Lorentz. 5. From Mosambique to Goa in August; unto the end of which it is good to part, without staying any longer. 6. From Mosambique to Goa, in the of March. 7. From the Cape of Good Hope, without the Isle of St. Laurentz, for Goa or Cochin. 8. Voyage toward the coast of Africa, when the Ship is East of the Garayes and of Saja de Malla, the season being past, and the provision spent, so that there is no likelyhood of a possiblilty of arriving on the coast of India, and that one is constrained to winter at Mombasa or Mosambique, which is the shortest way that can be taken. 9. From Mombasa to Goa, in March and April. 10. A voyage that may be made, when a Ship comes in the after-season to the Cape of Good Hope, and takes her course between Terra ferma and St. Laurentz. 11. From Goa to the Cape of Good Hope by Mosambique, passing between the Terra ferma and St. Laurentz. 12. From Cochin to the Cape to Good Hope by Mosambique. 13. From Goa to the C. of Good Hope, by passing without St. Laurentz, which is the old rout. 14. From the Cape of Good Hope to Lisbon, by the Isle of St. Helena. 15. From the Cape of Good Hope to Lisbon again, by the coast of Angola. 16. From Angola to Lisbon. 17. From Lisbon to Malacca, in October, to arrive there in April, which is the time of the Westwinds reign on the Indian Coasts. 18. From Lisbon to Malacca in the season of February and March. 19. From Malacca to Lisbon. 20. From Malacca to Macao in China. 21. From the Isles of Canton and the coast of China towards Nyngpo and Nanquin. 22. From Lampacon near Macao towards Japan, as far as the Isle of Firando. 23. From Macao to Japan and the Isle of Cabexuma, as far as to the Haven of Languasaque. 24. What course is to be taken to enter into the haven of Languasaque in Japan. 25. Rout held by the Pilots from Provence to the East Indies. 26. From the Isle of Gomera, one of the Canaries, to the Antisles, and thence to Cartagena, and Nombre de Dios, and so to the Havana. 27. The course and true marks from the Isle Desirada, as fas as the coast of Cartagena, Nombre de Dios, New Spain, and the Canal of Havana. 28. From Cape Vert to Brasil, and to know the Coast and Havens of the said Country of Brasil, as far as to the River della Plata. 29. From Todos los Santos, on the coast of Brasil. 30. From Rio des Ilhas, on the same coast. 31. To the haven, Porto Seguro, on the same coast. 32. To the haven called Spirito Santo, on the same coast. 33. From Spir. Santo to the Bay of St. Vincent. 34. From the Cape Frio, as far as Rio della Plata; with the particulars thereof. 35. The Ankrings and Soundings in the Roads and Havens of the Mare Glaciale and the White Sea. 36. The Soundings of the Havens of the Baltique, and the German Sea; as also of the Coast of England, beginning from the Cape of Cornwall, and so on; likewise of Ireland, France, Biscay, Gallicia, Portugal, the Coasts of Africa, the Isles of Tercera and the Canaries, of America, and particularly of Virginia, Florida, and New Spain.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, 1677. pp 879-883
Transcribed by Lars Bruzelius.
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