Robert Brindley: A Compendium of Naval Architecture, 1832.

[A vocabulary of technical terms.]


Abaft, aft, after. That part of the ship from midships

Adze. A tool for dubbing flat and circular work

Afloat. When a ship is swimming on the water

Afore. Same as forward

Anchors, (bower and sheet). The instruments by which vessels are brought up

Anchor-stock fashion. The method of working the planks of the wales, whereby the but of one plank comes nearly over the middle of the other; and the planks being broadest in the middle, and tapered to the buts, they resemble an anchor stock

Apron. The compass timber on the after side of the stem, to strengthen it, and generally sided more, to receive the fastenings of the fore hoods

Athwart -- Athwartships. Any thing extending or coming across a vessel

Augur. An instrument to bore the holes for the treenails bolts, &c.

Axe, A large flat tool for chopping out timber, &c.

Bark. Any ship carrying a mizen pole, instead of a top-mast, and setting a gaff-topsail, and a trysail on the main-mast -- thus designated bark-rigged

Backstay stools. Small channels, fixed abaft the principal ones

Bars, for the Capstan. Levers working horizontally

Balcony. The gallery in the stern

Barge. An East Country vessel, of peculiar construction; also the name given to a boat of a ship of war

Battens. Deals of a described size; also long slips of wood used in the mould loft, for laying off

Beak-head. Formerly a small platform, in large ships, at the fore part of the upper deck -- but now in disuse

Beams. The transverse pieces of timber, holding the ship's sides together, and supporting the several decks

Bearding. The diminution of any piece of timber or plank, from a given line, as the bearding of dead wood, clamps, rudder, &c.

Bearings. The lines of floatation

Belay. To secure the end of the rope

Belly. The inside or hollow part of compass timber - the outside is called the back

Bends. The form of a ship's body, from the keel to the top of the sides, at any particular place

Bevel, or bevelling rule, and bevelling boards. Implements by which bevellings are taken

Bevelling. Any alteration from a square - a standing bevelling is without a square - an under bevelling, within

Boat: Comprehended under the following descriptions, distinct from ships boats: Hatch boat - known on the River Thames as a pilot-boat. Peter boat - a fishing boat, belonging to the River Medway, and partially on the Thames. River boat, or wherry, for conveying passengers across. Ferry boat - for the same purpose. Pilot boat - a large boat or small sloop, running out to sea with Pilots for ships. Life boat - one of peculiar construction, lined with cork, for the purpose of attending wrecks. Lug boats - a larger description of life boat, belonging to Deal, enabled to go through the most tremendous weather. Trawling boat - used for fishing. Coble boat - belonging to the coast of Yorkshire, used for catching cod

Binding strakes. Thick planks of the decks, in midships, between the hatchways, &c.

Berthing. The working up of planks, as berthing up a bulkhead

Bitts. The large pieces of straight timber, to which the cables are belayed, the smaller bitts are for top-sail sheets and rigging

Black strake. The strake above the wales: in vessels with no ports, there are frequently two

Blocks. The several transverse pieces of timber, laid in plane, on which the ship is built

Bobstay holes. In the knee of the head

Bolting timbers. See knight heads.

Bolts. Iron and copper fastenings in the ship

Bolts. (Ring) On each side of the port holes, for the gun carriages; also used in planking of ship

Boring. Accomplished by augurs, for treenails, bolts & c., to be driven through

Bows. The round part of the ship forward, on both sides

Boxing. The projection left at the hawse pieces, in the wake of the hawse holes, where the planks do not run through

Binnacle. The box for the Compasses

Braces, pintles and braces, goodgeons. The securities of the rudder

Break. As for a ship to break her sheer, or her back - destroying the gradual sweep lengthways; also the break of the deck when not flush

Breats hooks. Compass timber in the bows of the vessel, internally

Breast rail. Upper rail of the balcony

Breast work. The stancheons, with rails in the foremost part of the poop.

Breech. The angle formed by the knee timber, the inside of which is called the throat.

Brig. A vessel with two masts, square rigged.

Brigantine. Whose rigging aft is that of a schooner's, and forward that of a brig, frequently called an hermaphrodite.

Brow. An inclined plane of planks, on one or both sides of the ship, to communicate internally.

Bulge, or bilge. That part of the ship she bears upon when on the ground.

Bulge, or bilgeways. Timber, or baulks, placed under the ship when prepared for launching.

Bulk-heads. All partitions

Bulls-eyes. Circular ground glass, let into decks, port lids, &c.

Bulwarks. The planking worked externally of the stancheons, in merchant ships, to preserve every thing on deck

Bumpkins. Pieces fitted above the main rail in the head, extending outwards, for hauling down the fore tack

Buoys. Floating logs in harbours, attached to the mooring chains, for securing vessels

But. The opening between the ends of two planks, when worked, or the extremities of the planks themselves; also the largest end of all timber

Buttock. That part abaft the body abaft, bounded by the wing transom, and upper or second water line

Callopers. Instruments for measuring the girth of timber

Cabin - Cabins. The different apartments allotted for the Officers

Camber. A term for any thing that rounds

Cant. Any thing that does not stand square, as the

Cant timbers. Which do not stand square with the middle line of the ship

Canting. The act of turning any thing from one side to the other

Caps. Pieces of oak, laid on the upper blocks, under the keel, which are split out for the addition of the false keel

Capstan. A machine by which all heavy purchases are accomplished.

Careen. To clear a ship's bottom of weeds, barnacles, &c., by fire, when on shore.

Carlings. Square pieces of timber, laid fore and aft, and scored into the beams.

Carpenter, (ship's.) A Petty Officer, who superintends repairs, &c. on board.

Carvel-built. When all the planks run flush with each other.

Cat-heads. Compass timbers on each side of the bows, for the anchors to be suspended from.

Corvette. A flush-deck vessel.

Caulking. The filling of the seams of the planks with oakum, made of old junk, to prevent a ship from leaking.

Chains. Links of iron, from the dead eyes to the ship's sides.

Champher. The taking off a sharp edge from any piece of timber or plank.

Channels. Broad planks fitted to the ship's sides, for the dead eyes.

Channel wales. Strakes worked between the gun-deck and upper deck ports of large ships, for strength, &c.

Cheeks. Pieces of knee timber on the ship's bows, for the security of the knee of the head.

Chestree. Is a piece fitted to the top side abaft the fore chains, with a shiver, for hauling home the fore tack.

Chine. That part of the water-way which is left the thickest.

Chocks. Pieces fitted to supply a deficiency.

Ceiling. The inside plank on the flat of the floor.

Convict ship, or hulk. A vessel appropriated for convicts, lying off Dock-yards.

Clamps. Thick strakes, worked inside, on which the ends of the beams rest.

Clean. Sharpness of a ship's body.

Cleats. Wood or iron stoppers, used for various purposes.

Clench. To secure the end of a bolt by a collar and head.

Clinker-built. When the planks lap one over the other.

Cock-pit. The after platform.

Collar. The neck of any thing, as of bolts.

Collier. A vessel well known, trading to the North.

Comings. the sides of the hatchways, resting on the carlings, raised all round from 6 to 18 inches high.

Companion. The berthing of the ladder-way to the cabin.

Copper. To sheath a ship's bottom with sheets of copper.

Coppers. The ship's stove for cooking.

Counters, Upper. Between the wing transom and the rail.
   Lower -- between that and the rail under the lights.

Counter timbers. Short timbers in the stern, for the purpose of strength.

Cradle. The bilge-ways, poppets, &c., which convey the ship to the water.

Craft. A name applied, in general terms, to a vessel or vessels.

Crank. In opposition to stability.

Cranks. Iron handles, by which the pumps, windlasses, &c., are worked.

Crooks. The tops of trees -- crooked timber.

Cross chocks. Pieces fayed across the dead wood, midships, to make good the deficiency of the heels of the lower futtocks.

Cross, cuts. All cuts with the saw across -- logs, timber, planks, &c.

Cross pieces. Bolted across the bits, to belay the cables, &c.

Cross spalls. Temporary beams, to support the ship in frame.

Crows-foot. Crooked timber, extended from the side of a beam to the ship's side, in the wake of the hatchway, &c. supplying the place of a beam.

Crutches. Crooked timber inside, abaft, for securing the heels of the half timbers.

Cub-house. A housing for a merchant ship's hearth, when on deck

Cuddy. The cabin under the poop deck in an Indiaman

Cutter. A sharp-built vessel with one mast, and bowsprit sliding in-board, horizontally; also the name of a ship's boat

Cut-water. A term frequently applied to the gripe

Dagger. A piece of timber that crosses the poppets of the bilge ways, to keep them in place -- the plank securing the head is called dagger plank

Dagger knees. Supplying the places of hanging knees, their side arms being brought up with a cast, to the underside of the lodging knees

Davits. Straight or compass timber, or iron, fixed to the quarters and stern, for hoisting up and suspending the boats.

Dead doors. Fitted outside of the quarter-gallery doors

Dead-eyes. Round pieces of elm, fixed in the channels, by the chains, with three holes in them, through which the lanyards of the shrouds are reeved

Dead flat, (marked throughout mds. in this work.) A name given to that timber or frame possesing the greatest capacity: where several timbers are thrown in, of the same area, the middle one is reckoned a dead flat

Dead-lights. Shutters to protect the stern and quarter galleries

Dead-wood. Pieces of timber placed fore and aft on the keel, and on which the floors rest, continued as high as the cutting down line, in both bodies, to receive the heels of the cant timbers

Derrick. A small crane, rigged either inside or outside of a ship.

Decks. Platforms in a ship, equivalent to the floors of a house

Dogger. A Dutch fishing smack

Double-banked. Having two tiers of ports, as the present large frigates

Doubling. Additional plank, either externally or internally

Dowelling. The method of uniting the buts of the frame timbers together, with a circular piece let in at each end

Dowsing chocks. Pieces fayed across the apron, and lapped on the knight heads, or inside stuff, above the upper deck

Draughts. The several delineations of a ship, drawn on a quarter-inch scale to the foot

Draught of water. The depth of water a ship draws, designated light water, load water draught, &c.

Drifts. Those parts where the rails are cut off, and end with a scroll, &c., as the drift of the quarter-deck, forecastle, and poop-deck

Drift-pieces. Forming the scrolls on the drifts

Drive. To drive treenails, bolts, &c.

Driver. The foremost spur in the bilge ways, the heel of which is fayed to the fore side of the foremast poppet, and the sides of it look fore and aft

Drop. When a line falls from a parallel or a curve

Druxy. Timber in decay

Dub, dubbing out, or dubbing down. The making fair the surfaces of the plank, inside and outside of the ship

Dunhead. In East country barges, the plank aft, forming the cabin

Dunnage battens. Forming an extra floor in a vessel, to preserve the cargo from wet, in the event of leakage

Eeking. Any piece fitted to make good a deficiency in length, as the end of a knee, &c.

Even keel. When a ship draws the same water forward as aft

Eye bolts. Bolts with eyes to them

Entrance. The form of the fore body, from the foot, aft

Face piece. A piece on the knee of the head, in the fore part, to assist the conversion of the main piece.

False keel. An additional keel of elm, to protect the main keel

False post, A piece at the after part of the main, as a preservative

Falling home. When the top-sides are within a perpendicular

Falling out. The contrariwise

Fashion pieces. Timbers secured to the ends of the transoms

Fay. Joining one piece close and fair with another.

Fenders. Pieces on the top-side, a-breast the main hatch, to prevent chafing.

Fife-rail. A rail wrought on the stancheons of the poop-deck, in ships of war, and all round in merchant ships, synonymous with rough-tree rail

Felucca. A foreign galley

Figure -- figure head. The carved ornament on the knee

Fillings. Fir fayed between the cheeks and the head

Filling timbers. Intermediate of the frames, not bolted together

Finishings -- upper and lower. The carved ornaments of the quarter gallery

Fish pieces. Pieces of wood, bound opposite to each other, securing the masts, when sprung or splintered.

Flats. All timbers in midships, similar to dead flat

Flairing. Opposite to falling home -- as a flairing counter, flairing bow.

Float. To swim.

Floors. The lowermost timbers of the ship, upon which the whole frame is erected

Flush. Any thing fair -- in equal lines

Flush-decked. When the deck ranges fair, without any break in it

Foot space rail. The rail in the balcony, in which the ballustres step

Fore and aft. From head to stern

Forecastle. A short deck forward, above the upper deck, as in flushed decked vessels, called a top gallant forecastle. In Indiamen it is used as a galley -- in minor class vessels, the forecastle is under the main deck, on a platform. The forecastles of ships of the line, frigates, &c., are flush with the quarter deck.

Foremost. Any thing nearer to the head than another

Footwaling. The inside plank of the bottom

Fore foot. The foremost piece of keel

Forward. The fore part of the ship

Frigate. The next class vessel to a ship of the line, carrying from 50 to 60 guns

Frames. The bends of timber, constituting the shape of the body of the ship -- when completed, a ship is said to be in frame. The frames, &c. are hoisted in by sheers, tackle falls, capstan, &c.

Furrens. Pieces supplying the deficiency of the timber, the moulding way

Futtocks. The separate pieces of timber which compose the frames

Galleys. Sometimes in the forecastle, sometimes under, between the bits -- the ship's hearth; a ship's boat; also the name of a foreign vessel

Gallows. The cross pieces on the small bits, at the main and fore hatchways in flush deck vessels, for the purpose of stowing away the booms, &c., over the boats.

Gammoning hole. Cut through the knee of the head, for the gammoning.

Gangways. Those portions of decks extending on each side of the ends of the skid beams, from the quarter deck to the forecastle -- in flush deck vessels the same space

Garboard strakes. The strakes of plank on each side of the keel

Gig. A ship's boat, narrow, and extremely light, appropriated for the captain's use.

Gratings. The coverings of the hatchways, made with cross battens and ledges

Gripe. The part below the knee of the head, which bolts to the stem, connecting the fore foot, secured by a copper horse shoe

Ground ways. The large blocks, planks, &c., which support the cradle

Gun-room. In ships of the line, the cabin abaft on the gun-deck, appropriated for junior officers -- in minor vessels, the cabin for the senior officers under the main-deck

Gunwale. The plank which covers the heads of the timbers, between the drifts, &c.

Goodgeons. The braces, with eyes, for the pintles of the rudder to work in

Hair bracket. The moulding at the back of the figure, breaking in with the upper deck

Half ports. Shutters for the ports, through which the gun point

Half timbers. The timbers in the cant bodies, answering to the lower futtocks in the square body

Hances. The breakings of the rudder abaft

Hanspikes. Levers by which the windlass is hove round; used also for other purposes.

Hanging. When any thing is below a straight line, as the hanging of the deck, sheer, &c.; also when a ship is difficult to be removed from the stocks

Harpings. The pieces of oak which hold the fore and aft cant bodies together, until the ship is planked

Hatches. The covering of the hatchways, made with ledges, and oak or dead fayed close together, and caulked.

Hatchways. The openings in ships' decks, for conveyance of stores, &c.

Hawse-pieces. The timbers which compose the bow of the ship, and their sides look fore and aft

Hawse-holes. Through which the cables rnu [sic]

Head. The upper part or end of any thing; also the work that is fitted afore the stem

Head-rails. The ornaments of the head, extending from the back of the figure to the cat-head

Head-ledges. Athwartship pieces which frame the hatchways and ladder-ways.

Hearth, (ship's.) The fire place, coppers, &c.

Heel. The lower end of a piece of timber -- the after end of the keel; also the position of the ship from a perpendicular

Helm. The whole apparatus which steers the ship

Helm-port. The hole in the counter, through which the head of the rudder passes.

Helm-port transom. The piece of timber placed across the lower counter, within side, the height of the helm port, and bolted through every timber, for the security of that part.

Hermaphrodite. A vessel rigged half schooner and half brig fashion -- same as brigantine.

Hogging, or hogged. When the sheer of the ship rises in midships, and is destroyed.

Hoods. All the foremost and aftermost planks of the bottom, both withinside and without.

Hood ends. The ends of the plank which fit into the rabbets of the stern and stern post.

Hooking. The act of working the edge of one plank into that another, in such a manner as they cannot be drawn asunder

Horse. The bar fixed to the main rail at the head, with stancheons; also an iron or wood bar, in cutters, schooners, &c., on which the foresail travels

Hospital ship. A vessel either in a squadron or a harbour, to receive the sick

Hove down. When a ship is placed on shore for repairs. Hove off. When removed from thence. Hove up. When brought into the slips or docks

Housings. The inboard part of the masts and bowsprit

Hoy. A sloop for carrying stores, &c., principally in short distances -- as Ordnance Hoy -- East India Hoy, &c.

Humber keel. A particular sort of craft, clinker built, belonging to the Humber

In and out. The scantling of timbers the moulding way -- an application to the bolts in the knees, drawn through the ship's sides -- termed in and out bolts

Inboard. Any thing inside

Inner post. The post on which the transoms are seated

Jolly boat. A ship's boat, next to the launch in size

Joint. The place where any two pieces are joined -- expressive of the lines which are laid down in the mould loft, for the purpose of making the moulds for the timbers -- as these lines are the shape of the body, between every two timbers, which, consequently, is the joint

Junk. A Chinese war boat

Keel. The base of the superstructure; also a vessel in the North, for conveying coals to the ships

Keelson. The long range of timber in the direction of the keel, placed over the floors for additional strength

Keelsons, (sister.) The same on each side of the main keelson, securing the futtocks heels

Ketch. A vessel with fore-mast and mizen-mast, something similar to a Galliot

Kevels. Supplying the place of timber heads

Kiln, (steam.) The building where planks are steamed for the purpose of bending round the extremities of a ship

Knees. Crooked pieces of timber, securing the beams to the ship's sides

Knee of the head. That part which supports the figure, rails, &c.

Knight heads, Timbers on each side of the stem, continued up, for the security of the bowsprit

Knuckle timbers. Whose heads stand perpendicular, and form an angle from the hollow of the top-sides, counters &c.

Lacing. One of the pieces in the knee of the head, running up as high as the hair bracket

Ladders. Steps for communication between decks

Ladder-ways. The hatchways, &c.

Launch. The ship for building -- also a ship's boat

Launching. The conveying of the ship from the ship into the water

Launching planks. Same as ground-ways

Laying down -- laying off. The describing of the lines of the ship, in the mould loft

Lazarette. A hospital or quarantine ship

Lean. As clean

Levels. Horizontal lines

Levelled out. Any line continued out from a given spot, in a level or horizontal direction

Ledges. The 'thwartship pieces in the framing of the decks, let into the carlings

Lee-boards. Wooden wings for barges and humber keels, to keep them to windward

Light, (floating.) A vessel moored off rocks or sand banks, hoisting lights at night

Lighter. A sloop for carrying stores in H.M. Navy; also a lumber vessel.

Limber boards. Short pieces of plank, covering the

Limber passage. Formed on each side of the keelson, for the water to have free communication with the pumps

Limber strakes. On each side of the keelson, forming the above

Lines. The various forms of the ship on the mould loft floor: see description, page 30.

Load water line. The line of water when the ship is at her greatest depth

Lockers. The seats, store rooms, &c., in the cabin, gunroom, &c.

Logs. The trunks of trees

Logged, (water.) When a ship is on her beam ends, or in that position in which she is unmanageable at sea

Long timbers, or double futtocks. Timbers in the cant bodies, extending from the dead wood to the run of the second futtock head

Long boat. The largest boat on board of merchant vessels

Luff. The roundest part of the bows of a ship

Lugger. A vessel carrying lug sails, well known on the Coasts of Kent and Sussex, in the character of a smuggler

Magazine. The deposit of gun-powder -- in large ships there are two, one forward, another aft

Main breadth. The broadest part of the ship at any particular timber or frame, distinguished by upper and lower heights of breadth lines

Main keel. The principal keel

Main post. The stern-post

Manger. The berthing in the fore part of the ship, on the gun deck, to prevent the ingress of water through the hawse holes

Masts. In ships, known as the main, (the middle) fore, (that forward) mizen, (aftermost) -- in brigs and schooners, main and fore -- in ketches and galliots, fore and mizen -- in cutters and sloops, main-mast -- bowsprit common to all

Mast carlings. Placed at the sides of the masts, to frame the partners

Main wales. The lower wales

Maul. A shipwrights hammer with one face, pointed at the opposite end

Midships. The middle part

Midship-bends. The greatest area of the ship

Moulds. The figures of the requisite timbers, made from the lines in the mould loft

Moulded. The size of the timber, the way the mould is laid

Moulding. Marking the true shape of the timber -- an ornamental projection

Munions. The divisional pieces of the stern lights

Navel hoods. Those hoods wrought above and below the hawse holes

Nog. A treenail driven through the heels of the shores, to secure them

Nogging. Securing the shores

Oars. The levers, having blades at the extremities, by which a boat is propelled forward

Orlop. The lowest deck

Over-hanging. Great projection

Over-launching. The running the but of the plank of a sufficient distance from the but underneath it, for strength

Openings. Of seams, &c., when a ship labours

Outboard. Outside

Packet. (Either a steamer or sailing vessel), a ship carrying dispatches, passengers, &c.

Paddles. The wheels of a steamer, suspended externally by a shaft, to propel her along, as oars.

Paddle boxes. The coverings of the paddles

Partners. The plank fitted into a rabbet, in the mast carlings, for wedging the masts

Pay. The act of pitching the seams

Pauls. Iron and wood brackets, suspended to the paul bits, and dropping into scores in the windlass, as a security to a purchase; also used horizontally for capstans, butting on the whelps, and pinned to the deck

Pilasters. Fluted columns, placed on the munions, superseded at times by trusses

Pillars. Perpendicular pieces of wood or iron, supporting the several decks

Pinnace. The second boat in a ship of war

Pins. Fitted in racks for belaying ropes to

Pitch house, or pitch boat. A place or vessel for boiling the pitch for the seams and bottoms of vessels

Pits, or Saw pits. Where timber is sawn

Plank. Timber used in casing or skinning a ship

Plank sheers. Pieces of plank laid over the timber heads, on the quarter-deck, forecastle, &c., for covering the top of the sides

Plugs, (shot.) Large spiles of wood, for the purpose of stopping shot holes.

Plumb. Perpendicular

Poop. The highest deck aft

Poppets. Perpendicular pieces of timber, between the bottom and bilge-ways, at the run and entrance of the ship

Ports. The square holes in the ship's sides; also aft and forward, as the bridle port, in the bows, quarter port, in round stern vessels, and stern ports between the stern timbers

Port-lids. The shutters of the ports

Post. The stern post

Powder vessel. A ship used for a magazine afloat

Preventer plates. Iron, securing the chains to the ship's sides

Preventer bolts. Driven through the lower ends of the plates, for the security of the same

Prison ship. One on board which prisoners are kept

Privateer. A ship, brig, schooner, &c., fitted out by private merchants, for cruizing against foes

Pumps. Machines fitted in the well, reaching to the decks, for clearing the ship of the water she makes

Pump chains. The chains to which the suckers, &c., are attached

Pump dales. Pipes to convey through the ship's sides the water from the

Pump cisterns. Into which it is brought by the pumps

Pump breaks. The handles of pumps in small vessels

Quarters. The upper part of the top-sides abaft, starboard and larboard

Quarter-deck. Extending from the main-mast aft

Quarter-galleries. The projections of the quarters, in windows, ornaments, &c.

Quarter-badges. Artificial galleries

Quarter-pieces. The projections at the after part of the quarter galleries, forming the boundaries of the stern

Quick-work, Short planks, worked inside between the ports

Rabbet. An angular incision, to receive the buts and sides of planks

Race. The act of marking timber with a race knife, and peculiar marks

Racks. Variously disposed in the ship, for belaying pins

Rails. Narrowing pieces of fir, with mouldings, as ornaments, &c.

Raft. A collection of timber

Rake. Forming an obtuse angle, either forward or aft

Ram-line. A small rope used in forming the sheer, &c.

Range. Length, as range of deck

Ranges. Pieces fixed to the inside of the ship, for pins; also pieces of oak with holes, placed round the hatchways for shot

Rate. The different classes of vessels, thus - 120 is a first rate, 100, second rate, 84, third rate, 74, fourth rate, 60 gun frigates, fifth rate, 50, sixth rate, sloops, &c., seventh rate

Razee. A vessel cut down, or reduced a deck

Ribbands. Pieces of fir nailed to the timbers of the square body, to hold them together, whilst in frame, under which shores are placed

Ribs. The frame timbers

Riddled. Full of shot holes - timbers all broken to pieces

Riders. Large bends of timber, bolted inside the ship

Ripping up, or open. Taking the planks off, &c.

Rooms. As storerooms, &c.

Room and space. Distance from the moulding edge of one timber to the moulded edge of another

Rough tree rail. Same as fife rail

Round-house. The cabin aft on the quarter deck

Round up. The bending of any timber or plank upwards

Row-locks. The pins on a boat's gunwale, in which the oars work

Rudder. That by which the ship is steered

Rudder-irons. Same as pintles and braces

Run. The marking or drawing of a line on a ship, or mould loft; also the form of the ship's body abaft, from midships

Saddle. A piece fitted on the upper end of the lacing, to secure the foremost ends of the main rails

Scantling. The dimensions given for the timber and plank

Scarph. The end of one piece of timber or plank, lapped over the other, forming an even surface

Schooner. A vessel with two masts, raking, and rigged with fore and aft sails

Scores. Angular pieces cut out of a solid

Scrapers. Triangular tools for cleaning the ships' sides

Scuppers. Holes in the ship's sides, for the purpose of carrying the water off the decks

Scuttle. To cut and sink a ship

Scuttles. Square openings on ship's decks - less than ladderways

Seams. The openings between the edges of the planks, when wrought

Seating. That part of a floor or transom, &c., which rests upon the place it is bolted to

Seat transom. That which is bolted to the counter timbers, above the uppper, at the height of the port sills

Sets off. The different dots, &c., in laying off, for the several lines to pass through

Setting up. Raising a ship from her blocks, shores, &c., by wedges driven between the bilge-piece and poppets, prior to launching

Shaken. When a plank, &c., is split

Shank painter. The rope or chain, for the purpose of lowering the anchor

Sheathing. Thin boards placed between the ship's body and the sheets of copper

Sheer. The hanging of the ship's side, in a fore and aft direction

Sheers. Spars lashed together for hoisting up by

Sheer strake. The strake in the top-side, worked with the top timber line

Sheer wales. Strakes of thick stuff, in the top-sides of three deck ships, between the middle and upper deck ports.

Shelf-pieces. Running internally in a line with the deck, for the purpose of receiving the beam ends

Shift. When one but of a piece of timber or plank overlaunches the but of another piece, without either being reduced in length, for the purpose of strength, as timbers of the frame, plank of the bottom, &c

Shifting. The act of moving, &c.

Shift. A three masted vessel

Ship, (flag.) An Admiral's ship

Ship of the line. 74 gun ships and upwards

Ship yard. Where vessels are built; but H.M. yards are known as Dock Yards, which are Pembroke, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Chatham, Sheerness, Woolwich, and Deptford

Shivers or Shives. The wheels in blocks

Sholes. Oak plank put under the shores

Shores. Fir timber, supporting the ship

Shores, (dog.) Diagonal pieces of wood, placed forward, supporting the bilge-ways on the ground-ways, thereby preventing the ship from going off the slips

Shot locker. Around the well for the shot

Sided. The dimensions of timber the contrary way to which the mould is placed

Sills. The upper and lower parts of the framing of the ports

Sirmarks. Sundry lines on the ship's body, from which the bevellings are taken: see page 39

Skids. Beams resting on blocks, on which East country barges are built

Skid beams. In frigates, ships of the line, &c., raised over the main-deck, parallel to the quarter-deck and forecastle beams, for the purpose of stowing the boats, booms, &c on

Skylight. Frame work in the deck, to admit light into the cabin and gun-room

Smack, (barrack.) A Scotch Trade; also a small vessel

Snow. A name commonly given to brigs in the merchant service, whose fore and aft main-sail works upon a try-sail mast, attached to the main-mast

Snying. When the edge of a plank rounds upwards, as the planks in the bottom, round the bows, where the middle appears above a straight line

Sleepers. Crooked timber used inside, abaft

Slip. The place the ship is built on

Sloop. A small vessel with one mast

Sloop of war. A minor class vessel, frigate built, sometimes applicable to brigs, as brig sloops, and corvettes

Span-shackles. Bolts, driven through the decks, for fixing the ends of any thing in

Spar deck. The upper deck of a double-banked frigate, having no openings in the waist

Spars. Round timber for masts, &c.

Spikes. Iron nails, by which the decks, ribbands, &c., are fastened

Spindle. The perpendicular cylindrical bar of iron on which the capstan revolves; also the windlass on horizontal ones, at each extremity

Spirketting. Planks above the beams ends

Splinters. Slips of timber, plank, &c., forced out by shot

Splitting out. The act of removing the blocks, &c.

Spokes. The handles of the wheel

Spurs. Large pieces of timber, the lower ends fixed to the bilgeways, and upper ends bolted to the ship's bottom, for security in lunching

Square body. The midship sections

Square tuck. The after part of a ship's bottom

Standards. Large pieces of knee timbers, with one arm bolted upon deck, through the beams, the other through ships' sides, now superseded; also the upright spars around the ship when building, for stages, &c.

Starboard and larboard. Distinguishing the sides of the ship, from forward, the first is on the right hand, the other on the left

Steamer or steam vessel. A ship or boat, propelled forward by the force of steam, having paddles, boilers, machinery, &c., for the purpose

Steeler. The foremost and afermost plank in a strake, which drops short of the stem or stern-post

Steering wheel. That by which the tiller and rudder are worked

Steeve. The inclination of the bowsprit

Stem. The formost piece in uniting the bows

Stemson. A piece of timber on the apron

Steps. For the masts, capstans, &c.

Stern. The after part of the ship, of which there are three descriptions, viz: the square stern, as generally built - the pink stern, of ancient date, being extremely contracted, similar to H.M. ship Cambridge; and the round, or segmental stern, as now introduced into the Navy

Stern frame. That which is composed of post, transoms, &c.

Stiff. Opposite to crank, firm, &c.

Stocks. The slips blocks, &c.

Stools. The securities of the galleries

Stopper bolts. Rings driven in the deck, for the stoppers

Store ship. A government vessel, appropriated for carrying stores

String. A strake withinside, under the gunwale, answering the sheer strake outwards

Stuff. Square timber of different thicknesses

Supporters. Circular knees, under the cat-heads

Syphered. One edge of a plank lapped over the edge of another in such a manner that both planks make a plain surface

Sweeps. See page 31; also large oars, used in sloops, brigs, schooners, cutters, &c., to propel them along

Swims. The flat inclined extremities of East country barges

Tabling. The letting of one piece of timber into another, similar to hooking of planks, so that they cannot be pulled asunder lengthways.

Taffrail. The upper part of the stern, corresponding with the quarter pieces

Teach. The direction that any line, curve, &c. seems to point out

Term pieces, or terms. Pieces of carved work on each side of the taffrail upon the side stern timber, and extending down as low as the foot-rail of the balcony

Thick stuff. Sided timber, under one foot, and above four inches, in thickness

Tholls. Wooden pins in boats gunwales, for the oars to work in

Throat. The middle inside part of the compass, or knee timber

Thwarts, of a boat. The seats or benches

Tiers. Numbers of rows of guns -- also the place in the orlop where the cables are stowed

Tiller. The lever which turns the rudder

Timbers. A general name given to the pieces comprising the frame of the ship

Tonnage. The admeasurement of the ship

Top-sides. All above the main wales

Top-timbers. Those on the top sides

Top and But. The method of working English plank to good conversion, done by disposing of the top of every plank within six feet of the but end of the plank above or below it, letting every plank work as broad as it will, by which means only every other seam is a fair one

T. Plates. Under the channels, for the purpose of giving greater strength and support

Trail-boards. The carved work between the cheeks of the head

Transoms. Thwartship pieces of timber, &c. forming the buttocks

Transom knees. As sleepers

Transports. Private vessels hired by Government for carrying troops, stores, &c.

Transports, Naval. Government store ships

Treenails. Wooden bolts driven through the planks and timbers, holding all together

Trim. The working of any piece of timber or plank to its proper shape -- also the set of the ship on the water

Troop ship. A large class of vessel appropriated for carrying troops, usually 50's and 64's.

Tuck. The upper part of the buttock

Tuck rail. On the upper edge of the wing transom

Tumbling home. As falling home

Unship. Taking any thing out of its place

Upper works. Comprehending that portion of a ship above the load water line

Upset. To turn over, to remove any thing out of its place

Wake, (In the). Abreast

Wales. The thickest planks in the ship, and worked in the broadest part

Waist. That part of the top-side which is above the upper deck, between the main and fore drifts, in frigates, ships of the line, &c. hence designated deep waisted -- flush decked vessels are termed shallow waisted

Wall-sided. When a ship continues the breadth very low down and high up, having perpendicular futtocks

Ward-room. In ships of the line on the main deck -- the officers cabin

Water-ways. Planks of the decks which are wrought next to the timbers

Wedging up. Gaining security by driving wedges

Well. The enclosure of the pumps

Winch. A small cylindrical machine attached to masts or bits in small craft, for the purpose of heaving any thing of the hold -- warping, &c.

Windlass. A horizontal machine in merchant vessels and cutters, by which the anchor is hove up, and by which the ship rides

Wing transom. The uppermost transom in the stern frame

Wings. The spaces on the orlop, between the cable tiers and ship's sides

Winding. Any thing that twists

Within board. Inside

Without board. Outside

Wrought. Any thing worked

Yacht. A pleasure vessel

Yacht, Royal. A vessel expressly for His Majesty's use -- there are three or four yachts in the Navy

Yacht Royal (Club). Instituted by a number of Noblemen and Gentlemen -- His Majesty, Patron -- Lord Yarborough, Commodore -- certain privileges are attached -- Naval Architecture and Naval tactics are much encouraged, and proved extremely successful in the production of the Pantaloon, by Captain Symons, R.N.

Yawl. A small fishing vessel

Yoke. A board transversely fitted to a boat's rudder, to steer by, instead of a tiller.

N.B. It must be observed, in addition to the preceding technicalities, that the sea phraseology is inseparably connected with ship building, as regards ropes, gear, hoisting, &c, &c.


Bomb vessel. A small vessel, strongly built, for the purpose of carrying mortars, to bombard towns. Two vessels of this description (Hecla and Fury) were lately equipped for exploring the North Pole

Bum-boat. A boat for merchandize

Canoe. An Indian boat

Crane. A machine by which timber, &c., is hoisted up on wharfs, &c.

Diagonals. The several lines on the draughts, delineating the station of the harpings, &c., see page 38

Fire-ship. A vessel loaded with combustibles, and sent down amidst a fleet, which exploding, creates the greatest confusion and destruction

Galliot. A foreign vessel, with foremast, and small mizen-mast

Horns of the tiller. The pins at the extremity

Hulk. A vessel in harbour, to receive the crew of any other ship fitting out, &c.

Hulk, (sheer.) A vessel with a mast, spars, &c. for the purpose of getting in and out ships' masts

Robert Brindley: A Compendium of Naval Architecture, Arranged in Questions and Answers, with Illustrations, Adapted for Facilitating the Nautical Student in the Acquisition of the Art; In which are also introduced, by permission of the Inventors, some of the most recent Improvements in Nautical Science, and Inventions of experienced Naval Officers and Scientific Men; And also is appended a vocabulary of technical terms.
G.W. Hearle, Devonport, (1832). 12mo, 13,5×7,5 cm, xii, 167 pp frontispiece, 5 plates.
Transcribed by Lars Bruzelius

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Copyright © 1997 Lars Bruzelius.