Abaft, aft, after. That part of the ship from midships
Adze. A tool for dubbing flat and circular work
Afloat. When a ship is swimming on the water
Afore. Same as forward
Anchors, (bower and sheet). The instruments by which vessels are brought up
Anchor-stock fashion. The method of working the planks of the wales, whereby the but of one plank comes nearly over the middle of the other; and the planks being broadest in the middle, and tapered to the buts, they resemble an anchor stock
Apron. The compass timber on the after side of the stem, to strengthen it, and generally sided more, to receive the fastenings of the fore hoods
Athwart -- Athwartships. Any thing extending or coming across a vessel
Augur. An instrument to bore the holes for the treenails bolts, &c.
Axe, A large flat tool for chopping out timber, &c.
Bark. Any ship carrying a mizen pole, instead of a top-mast, and setting a gaff-topsail, and a trysail on the main-mast -- thus designated bark-rigged
Backstay stools. Small channels, fixed abaft the principal ones
Bars, for the Capstan. Levers working horizontally
Balcony. The gallery in the stern
Barge. An East Country vessel, of peculiar construction; also the name given to a boat of a ship of war
Battens. Deals of a described size; also long slips of wood used in the mould loft, for laying off
Beak-head. Formerly a small platform, in large ships, at the fore part of the upper deck -- but now in disuse
Beams. The transverse pieces of timber, holding the ship's sides together, and supporting the several decks
Bearding. The diminution of any piece of timber or plank, from a given line, as the bearding of dead wood, clamps, rudder, &c.
Bearings. The lines of floatation
Belay. To secure the end of the rope
Belly. The inside or hollow part of compass timber - the outside is called the back
Bends. The form of a ship's body, from the keel to the top of the sides, at any particular place
Bevel, or bevelling rule, and bevelling boards. Implements by which bevellings are taken
Bevelling. Any alteration from a square - a standing bevelling is without a square - an under bevelling, within
Boat: Comprehended under the following descriptions, distinct from ships boats: Hatch boat - known on the River Thames as a pilot-boat. Peter boat - a fishing boat, belonging to the River Medway, and partially on the Thames. River boat, or wherry, for conveying passengers across. Ferry boat - for the same purpose. Pilot boat - a large boat or small sloop, running out to sea with Pilots for ships. Life boat - one of peculiar construction, lined with cork, for the purpose of attending wrecks. Lug boats - a larger description of life boat, belonging to Deal, enabled to go through the most tremendous weather. Trawling boat - used for fishing. Coble boat - belonging to the coast of Yorkshire, used for catching cod
Binding strakes. Thick planks of the decks, in midships, between the hatchways, &c.
Berthing. The working up of planks, as berthing up a bulkhead
Bitts. The large pieces of straight timber, to which the cables are belayed, the smaller bitts are for top-sail sheets and rigging
Black strake. The strake above the wales: in vessels with no ports, there are frequently two
Blocks. The several transverse pieces of timber, laid in plane, on which the ship is built
Bobstay holes. In the knee of the head
Bolting timbers. See knight heads.
Bolts. Iron and copper fastenings in the ship
Bolts. (Ring) On each side of the port holes, for the gun carriages; also used in planking of ship
Boring. Accomplished by augurs, for treenails, bolts & c., to be driven through
Bows. The round part of the ship forward, on both sides
Boxing. The projection left at the hawse pieces, in the wake of the hawse holes, where the planks do not run through
Binnacle. The box for the Compasses
Braces, pintles and braces, goodgeons. The securities of the rudder
Break. As for a ship to break her sheer, or her back - destroying the gradual sweep lengthways; also the break of the deck when not flush
Breats hooks. Compass timber in the bows of the vessel, internally
Breast rail. Upper rail of the balcony
Breast work. The stancheons, with rails in the foremost part of the poop.
Breech. The angle formed by the knee timber, the inside of which is called the throat.
Brig. A vessel with two masts, square rigged.
Brigantine. Whose rigging aft is that of a schooner's, and forward that of a brig, frequently called an hermaphrodite.
Brow. An inclined plane of planks, on one or both sides of the ship, to communicate internally.
Bulge, or bilge. That part of the ship she bears upon when on the ground.
Bulge, or bilgeways. Timber, or baulks, placed under the ship when prepared for launching.
Bulk-heads. All partitions
Bulls-eyes. Circular ground glass, let into decks, port lids, &c.
Bulwarks. The planking worked externally of the stancheons, in merchant ships, to preserve every thing on deck
Bumpkins. Pieces fitted above the main rail in the head, extending outwards, for hauling down the fore tack
Buoys. Floating logs in harbours, attached to the mooring chains, for securing vessels
But. The opening between the ends of two planks, when worked, or the extremities of the planks themselves; also the largest end of all timber
Buttock. That part abaft the body abaft, bounded by the wing transom, and upper or second water line
Callopers. Instruments for measuring the girth of timber
Cabin - Cabins. The different apartments allotted for the Officers
Camber. A term for any thing that rounds
Cant. Any thing that does not stand square, as the
Cant timbers. Which do not stand square with the middle line of the ship
Canting. The act of turning any thing from one side to the other
Caps. Pieces of oak, laid on the upper blocks, under the keel, which are split out for the addition of the false keel
Capstan. A machine by which all heavy purchases are accomplished.
Careen. To clear a ship's bottom of weeds, barnacles, &c., by fire, when on shore.
Carlings. Square pieces of timber, laid fore and aft, and scored into the beams.
Carpenter, (ship's.) A Petty Officer, who superintends repairs, &c. on board.
Carvel-built. When all the planks run flush with each other.
Cat-heads. Compass timbers on each side of the bows, for the anchors to be suspended from.
Corvette. A flush-deck vessel.
Caulking. The filling of the seams of the planks with oakum, made of old junk, to prevent a ship from leaking.
Chains. Links of iron, from the dead eyes to the ship's sides.
Champher. The taking off a sharp edge from any piece of timber or plank.
Channels. Broad planks fitted to the ship's sides, for the dead eyes.
Channel wales. Strakes worked between the gun-deck and upper deck ports of large ships, for strength, &c.
Cheeks. Pieces of knee timber on the ship's bows, for the security of the knee of the head.
Chestree. Is a piece fitted to the top side abaft the fore chains, with a shiver, for hauling home the fore tack.
Chine. That part of the water-way which is left the thickest.
Chocks. Pieces fitted to supply a deficiency.
Ceiling. The inside plank on the flat of the floor.
Convict ship, or hulk. A vessel appropriated for convicts, lying off Dock-yards.
Clamps. Thick strakes, worked inside, on which the ends of the beams rest.
Clean. Sharpness of a ship's body.
Cleats. Wood or iron stoppers, used for various purposes.
Clench. To secure the end of a bolt by a collar and head.
Clinker-built. When the planks lap one over the other.
Cock-pit. The after platform.
Collar. The neck of any thing, as of bolts.
Collier. A vessel well known, trading to the North.
Comings. the sides of the hatchways, resting on the carlings, raised all round from 6 to 18 inches high.
Companion. The berthing of the ladder-way to the cabin.
Copper. To sheath a ship's bottom with sheets of copper.
Coppers. The ship's stove for cooking.
Counters, Upper. Between the wing transom and the rail.
Lower -- between that and the rail under the lights.
Counter timbers. Short timbers in the stern, for the purpose of strength.
Cradle. The bilge-ways, poppets, &c., which convey the ship to the water.
Craft. A name applied, in general terms, to a vessel or vessels.
Crank. In opposition to stability.
Cranks. Iron handles, by which the pumps, windlasses, &c., are worked.
Crooks. The tops of trees -- crooked timber.
Cross chocks. Pieces fayed across the dead wood, midships, to make good the deficiency of the heels of the lower futtocks.
Cross, cuts. All cuts with the saw across -- logs, timber, planks, &c.
Cross pieces. Bolted across the bits, to belay the cables, &c.
Cross spalls. Temporary beams, to support the ship in frame.
Crows-foot. Crooked timber, extended from the side of a beam to the ship's side, in the wake of the hatchway, &c. supplying the place of a beam.
Crutches. Crooked timber inside, abaft, for securing the heels of the half timbers.
Cub-house. A housing for a merchant ship's hearth, when on deck
Cuddy. The cabin under the poop deck in an Indiaman
Cutter. A sharp-built vessel with one mast, and bowsprit sliding in-board, horizontally; also the name of a ship's boat
Cut-water. A term frequently applied to the gripe
Dagger. A piece of timber that crosses the poppets of the bilge ways, to keep them in place -- the plank securing the head is called dagger plank
Dagger knees. Supplying the places of hanging knees, their side arms being brought up with a cast, to the underside of the lodging knees
Davits. Straight or compass timber, or iron, fixed to the quarters and stern, for hoisting up and suspending the boats.
Dead doors. Fitted outside of the quarter-gallery doors
Dead-eyes. Round pieces of elm, fixed in the channels, by the chains, with three holes in them, through which the lanyards of the shrouds are reeved
Dead flat, (marked throughout mds. in this work.) A name given to that timber or frame possesing the greatest capacity: where several timbers are thrown in, of the same area, the middle one is reckoned a dead flat
Dead-lights. Shutters to protect the stern and quarter galleries
Dead-wood. Pieces of timber placed fore and aft on the keel, and on which the floors rest, continued as high as the cutting down line, in both bodies, to receive the heels of the cant timbers
Derrick. A small crane, rigged either inside or outside of a ship.
Decks. Platforms in a ship, equivalent to the floors of a house
Dogger. A Dutch fishing smack
Double-banked. Having two tiers of ports, as the present large frigates
Doubling. Additional plank, either externally or internally
Dowelling. The method of uniting the buts of the frame timbers together, with a circular piece let in at each end
Dowsing chocks. Pieces fayed across the apron, and lapped on the knight heads, or inside stuff, above the upper deck
Draughts. The several delineations of a ship, drawn on a quarter-inch scale to the foot
Draught of water. The depth of water a ship draws, designated light water, load water draught, &c.
Drifts. Those parts where the rails are cut off, and end with a scroll, &c., as the drift of the quarter-deck, forecastle, and poop-deck
Drift-pieces. Forming the scrolls on the drifts
Drive. To drive treenails, bolts, &c.
Driver. The foremost spur in the bilge ways, the heel of which is fayed to the fore side of the foremast poppet, and the sides of it look fore and aft
Drop. When a line falls from a parallel or a curve
Druxy. Timber in decay
Dub, dubbing out, or dubbing down. The making fair the surfaces of the plank, inside and outside of the ship
Dunhead. In East country barges, the plank aft, forming the cabin
Dunnage battens. Forming an extra floor in a vessel, to preserve the cargo from wet, in the event of leakage
Eeking. Any piece fitted to make good a deficiency in length, as the end of a knee, &c.
Even keel. When a ship draws the same water forward as aft
Eye bolts. Bolts with eyes to them
Entrance. The form of the fore body, from the foot, aft
Face piece. A piece on the knee of the head, in the fore part, to assist the conversion of the main piece.
False keel. An additional keel of elm, to protect the main keel
False post, A piece at the after part of the main, as a preservative
Falling home. When the top-sides are within a perpendicular
Falling out. The contrariwise
Fashion pieces. Timbers secured to the ends of the transoms
Fay. Joining one piece close and fair with another.
Fenders. Pieces on the top-side, a-breast the main hatch, to prevent chafing.
Fife-rail. A rail wrought on the stancheons of the poop-deck, in ships of war, and all round in merchant ships, synonymous with rough-tree rail
Felucca. A foreign galley
Figure -- figure head. The carved ornament on the knee
Fillings. Fir fayed between the cheeks and the head
Filling timbers. Intermediate of the frames, not bolted together
Finishings -- upper and lower. The carved ornaments of the quarter gallery
Fish pieces. Pieces of wood, bound opposite to each other, securing the masts, when sprung or splintered.
Flats. All timbers in midships, similar to dead flat
Flairing. Opposite to falling home -- as a flairing counter, flairing bow.
Float. To swim.
Floors. The lowermost timbers of the ship, upon which the whole frame is erected
Flush. Any thing fair -- in equal lines
Flush-decked. When the deck ranges fair, without any break in it
Foot space rail. The rail in the balcony, in which the ballustres step
Fore and aft. From head to stern
Forecastle. A short deck forward, above the upper deck, as in flushed decked vessels, called a top gallant forecastle. In Indiamen it is used as a galley -- in minor class vessels, the forecastle is under the main deck, on a platform. The forecastles of ships of the line, frigates, &c., are flush with the quarter deck.
Foremost. Any thing nearer to the head than another
Footwaling. The inside plank of the bottom
Fore foot. The foremost piece of keel
Forward. The fore part of the ship
Frigate. The next class vessel to a ship of the line, carrying from 50 to 60 guns
Frames. The bends of timber, constituting the shape of the body of the ship -- when completed, a ship is said to be in frame. The frames, &c. are hoisted in by sheers, tackle falls, capstan, &c.
Furrens. Pieces supplying the deficiency of the timber, the moulding way
Futtocks. The separate pieces of timber which compose the frames
Galleys. Sometimes in the forecastle, sometimes under, between the bits -- the ship's hearth; a ship's boat; also the name of a foreign vessel
Gallows. The cross pieces on the small bits, at the main and fore hatchways in flush deck vessels, for the purpose of stowing away the booms, &c., over the boats.
Gammoning hole. Cut through the knee of the head, for the gammoning.
Gangways. Those portions of decks extending on each side of the ends of the skid beams, from the quarter deck to the forecastle -- in flush deck vessels the same space
Garboard strakes. The strakes of plank on each side of the keel
Gig. A ship's boat, narrow, and extremely light, appropriated for the captain's use.
Gratings. The coverings of the hatchways, made with cross battens and ledges
Gripe. The part below the knee of the head, which bolts to the stem, connecting the fore foot, secured by a copper horse shoe
Ground ways. The large blocks, planks, &c., which support the cradle
Gun-room. In ships of the line, the cabin abaft on the gun-deck, appropriated for junior officers -- in minor vessels, the cabin for the senior officers under the main-deck
Gunwale. The plank which covers the heads of the timbers, between the drifts, &c.
Goodgeons. The braces, with eyes, for the pintles of the rudder to work in
Hair bracket. The moulding at the back of the figure, breaking in with the upper deck
Half ports. Shutters for the ports, through which the gun point
Half timbers. The timbers in the cant bodies, answering to the lower futtocks in the square body
Hances. The breakings of the rudder abaft
Hanspikes. Levers by which the windlass is hove round; used also for other purposes.
Hanging. When any thing is below a straight line, as the hanging of the deck, sheer, &c.; also when a ship is difficult to be removed from the stocks
Harpings. The pieces of oak which hold the fore and aft cant bodies together, until the ship is planked
Hatches. The covering of the hatchways, made with ledges, and oak or dead fayed close together, and caulked.
Hatchways. The openings in ships' decks, for conveyance of stores, &c.
Hawse-pieces. The timbers which compose the bow of the ship, and their sides look fore and aft
Hawse-holes. Through which the cables rnu [sic]
Head. The upper part or end of any thing; also the work that is fitted afore the stem
Head-rails. The ornaments of the head, extending from the back of the figure to the cat-head
Head-ledges. Athwartship pieces which frame the hatchways and ladder-ways.
Hearth, (ship's.) The fire place, coppers, &c.
Heel. The lower end of a piece of timber -- the after end of the keel; also the position of the ship from a perpendicular
Helm. The whole apparatus which steers the ship
Helm-port. The hole in the counter, through which the head of the rudder passes.
Helm-port transom. The piece of timber placed across the lower counter, within side, the height of the helm port, and bolted through every timber, for the security of that part.
Hermaphrodite. A vessel rigged half schooner and half brig fashion -- same as brigantine.
Hogging, or hogged. When the sheer of the ship rises in midships, and is destroyed.
Hoods. All the foremost and aftermost planks of the bottom, both withinside and without.
Hood ends. The ends of the plank which fit into the rabbets of the stern and stern post.
Hooking. The act of working the edge of one plank into that another, in such a manner as they cannot be drawn asunder
Horse. The bar fixed to the main rail at the head, with stancheons; also an iron or wood bar, in cutters, schooners, &c., on which the foresail travels
Hospital ship. A vessel either in a squadron or a harbour, to receive the sick
Hove down. When a ship is placed on shore for repairs. Hove off. When removed from thence. Hove up. When brought into the slips or docks
Housings. The inboard part of the masts and bowsprit
Hoy. A sloop for carrying stores, &c., principally in short distances -- as Ordnance Hoy -- East India Hoy, &c.
Humber keel. A particular sort of craft, clinker built, belonging to the Humber
In and out. The scantling of timbers the moulding way -- an application to the bolts in the knees, drawn through the ship's sides -- termed in and out bolts
Inboard. Any thing inside
Inner post. The post on which the transoms are seated
Jolly boat. A ship's boat, next to the launch in size
Joint. The place where any two pieces are joined -- expressive of the lines which are laid down in the mould loft, for the purpose of making the moulds for the timbers -- as these lines are the shape of the body, between every two timbers, which, consequently, is the joint
Junk. A Chinese war boat
Keel. The base of the superstructure; also a vessel in the North, for conveying coals to the ships
Keelson. The long range of timber in the direction of the keel, placed over the floors for additional strength
Keelsons, (sister.) The same on each side of the main keelson, securing the futtocks heels
Ketch. A vessel with fore-mast and mizen-mast, something similar to a Galliot
Kevels. Supplying the place of timber heads
Kiln, (steam.) The building where planks are steamed for the purpose of bending round the extremities of a ship
Knees. Crooked pieces of timber, securing the beams to the ship's sides
Knee of the head. That part which supports the figure, rails, &c.
Knight heads, Timbers on each side of the stem, continued up, for the security of the bowsprit
Knuckle timbers. Whose heads stand perpendicular, and form an angle from the hollow of the top-sides, counters &c.
Lacing. One of the pieces in the knee of the head, running up as high as the hair bracket
Ladders. Steps for communication between decks
Ladder-ways. The hatchways, &c.
Launch. The ship for building -- also a ship's boat
Launching. The conveying of the ship from the ship into the water
Launching planks. Same as ground-ways
Laying down -- laying off. The describing of the lines of the ship, in the mould loft
Lazarette. A hospital or quarantine ship
Lean. As clean
Levels. Horizontal lines
Levelled out. Any line continued out from a given spot, in a level or horizontal direction
Ledges. The 'thwartship pieces in the framing of the decks, let into the carlings
Lee-boards. Wooden wings for barges and humber keels, to keep them to windward
Light, (floating.) A vessel moored off rocks or sand banks, hoisting lights at night
Lighter. A sloop for carrying stores in H.M. Navy; also a lumber vessel.
Limber boards. Short pieces of plank, covering the
Limber passage. Formed on each side of the keelson, for the water to have free communication with the pumps
Limber strakes. On each side of the keelson, forming the above
Lines. The various forms of the ship on the mould loft floor: see description, page 30.
Load water line. The line of water when the ship is at her greatest depth
Lockers. The seats, store rooms, &c., in the cabin, gunroom, &c.
Logs. The trunks of trees
Logged, (water.) When a ship is on her beam ends, or in that position in which she is unmanageable at sea
Long timbers, or double futtocks. Timbers in the cant bodies, extending from the dead wood to the run of the second futtock head
Long boat. The largest boat on board of merchant vessels
Luff. The roundest part of the bows of a ship
Lugger. A vessel carrying lug sails, well known on the Coasts of Kent and Sussex, in the character of a smuggler
Magazine. The deposit of gun-powder -- in large ships there are two, one forward, another aft
Main breadth. The broadest part of the ship at any particular timber or frame, distinguished by upper and lower heights of breadth lines
Main keel. The principal keel
Main post. The stern-post
Manger. The berthing in the fore part of the ship, on the gun deck, to prevent the ingress of water through the hawse holes
Masts. In ships, known as the main, (the middle) fore, (that forward) mizen, (aftermost) -- in brigs and schooners, main and fore -- in ketches and galliots, fore and mizen -- in cutters and sloops, main-mast -- bowsprit common to all
Mast carlings. Placed at the sides of the masts, to frame the partners
Main wales. The lower wales
Maul. A shipwrights hammer with one face, pointed at the opposite end
Midships. The middle part
Midship-bends. The greatest area of the ship
Moulds. The figures of the requisite timbers, made from the lines in the mould loft
Moulded. The size of the timber, the way the mould is laid
Moulding. Marking the true shape of the timber -- an ornamental projection
Munions. The divisional pieces of the stern lights
Navel hoods. Those hoods wrought above and below the hawse holes
Nog. A treenail driven through the heels of the shores, to secure them
Nogging. Securing the shores
Oars. The levers, having blades at the extremities, by which a boat is propelled forward
Orlop. The lowest deck
Over-hanging. Great projection
Over-launching. The running the but of the plank of a sufficient distance from the but underneath it, for strength
Openings. Of seams, &c., when a ship labours
Packet. (Either a steamer or sailing vessel), a ship carrying dispatches, passengers, &c.
Paddles. The wheels of a steamer, suspended externally by a shaft, to propel her along, as oars.
Paddle boxes. The coverings of the paddles
Partners. The plank fitted into a rabbet, in the mast carlings, for wedging the masts
Pay. The act of pitching the seams
Pauls. Iron and wood brackets, suspended to the paul bits, and dropping into scores in the windlass, as a security to a purchase; also used horizontally for capstans, butting on the whelps, and pinned to the deck
Pilasters. Fluted columns, placed on the munions, superseded at times by trusses
Pillars. Perpendicular pieces of wood or iron, supporting the several decks
Pinnace. The second boat in a ship of war
Pins. Fitted in racks for belaying ropes to
Pitch house, or pitch boat. A place or vessel for boiling the pitch for the seams and bottoms of vessels
Pits, or Saw pits. Where timber is sawn
Plank. Timber used in casing or skinning a ship
Plank sheers. Pieces of plank laid over the timber heads, on the quarter-deck, forecastle, &c., for covering the top of the sides
Plugs, (shot.) Large spiles of wood, for the purpose of stopping shot holes.
Poop. The highest deck aft
Poppets. Perpendicular pieces of timber, between the bottom and bilge-ways, at the run and entrance of the ship
Ports. The square holes in the ship's sides; also aft and forward, as the bridle port, in the bows, quarter port, in round stern vessels, and stern ports between the stern timbers
Port-lids. The shutters of the ports
Post. The stern post
Powder vessel. A ship used for a magazine afloat
Preventer plates. Iron, securing the chains to the ship's sides
Preventer bolts. Driven through the lower ends of the plates, for the security of the same
Prison ship. One on board which prisoners are kept
Privateer. A ship, brig, schooner, &c., fitted out by private merchants, for cruizing against foes
Pumps. Machines fitted in the well, reaching to the decks, for clearing the ship of the water she makes
Pump chains. The chains to which the suckers, &c., are attached
Pump dales. Pipes to convey through the ship's sides the water from the
Pump cisterns. Into which it is brought by the pumps
Pump breaks. The handles of pumps in small vessels
Quarters. The upper part of the top-sides abaft, starboard and larboard
Quarter-deck. Extending from the main-mast aft
Quarter-galleries. The projections of the quarters, in windows, ornaments, &c.
Quarter-badges. Artificial galleries
Quarter-pieces. The projections at the after part of the quarter galleries, forming the boundaries of the stern
Quick-work, Short planks, worked inside between the ports
Rabbet. An angular incision, to receive the buts and sides of planks
Race. The act of marking timber with a race knife, and peculiar marks
Racks. Variously disposed in the ship, for belaying pins
Rails. Narrowing pieces of fir, with mouldings, as ornaments, &c.
Raft. A collection of timber
Rake. Forming an obtuse angle, either forward or aft
Ram-line. A small rope used in forming the sheer, &c.
Range. Length, as range of deck
Ranges. Pieces fixed to the inside of the ship, for pins; also pieces of oak with holes, placed round the hatchways for shot
Rate. The different classes of vessels, thus - 120 is a first rate, 100, second rate, 84, third rate, 74, fourth rate, 60 gun frigates, fifth rate, 50, sixth rate, sloops, &c., seventh rate
Razee. A vessel cut down, or reduced a deck
Ribbands. Pieces of fir nailed to the timbers of the square body, to hold them together, whilst in frame, under which shores are placed
Ribs. The frame timbers
Riddled. Full of shot holes - timbers all broken to pieces
Riders. Large bends of timber, bolted inside the ship
Ripping up, or open. Taking the planks off, &c.
Rooms. As storerooms, &c.
Room and space. Distance from the moulding edge of one timber to the moulded edge of another
Rough tree rail. Same as fife rail
Round-house. The cabin aft on the quarter deck
Round up. The bending of any timber or plank upwards
Row-locks. The pins on a boat's gunwale, in which the oars work
Rudder. That by which the ship is steered
Rudder-irons. Same as pintles and braces
Run. The marking or drawing of a line on a ship, or mould loft; also the form of the ship's body abaft, from midships
Saddle. A piece fitted on the upper end of the lacing, to secure the foremost ends of the main rails
Scantling. The dimensions given for the timber and plank
Scarph. The end of one piece of timber or plank, lapped over the other, forming an even surface
Schooner. A vessel with two masts, raking, and rigged with fore and aft sails
Scores. Angular pieces cut out of a solid
Scrapers. Triangular tools for cleaning the ships' sides
Scuppers. Holes in the ship's sides, for the purpose of carrying the water off the decks
Scuttle. To cut and sink a ship
Scuttles. Square openings on ship's decks - less than ladderways
Seams. The openings between the edges of the planks, when wrought
Seating. That part of a floor or transom, &c., which rests upon the place it is bolted to
Seat transom. That which is bolted to the counter timbers, above the uppper, at the height of the port sills
Sets off. The different dots, &c., in laying off, for the several lines to pass through
Setting up. Raising a ship from her blocks, shores, &c., by wedges driven between the bilge-piece and poppets, prior to launching
Shaken. When a plank, &c., is split
Shank painter. The rope or chain, for the purpose of lowering the anchor
Sheathing. Thin boards placed between the ship's body and the sheets of copper
Sheer. The hanging of the ship's side, in a fore and aft direction
Sheers. Spars lashed together for hoisting up by
Sheer strake. The strake in the top-side, worked with the top timber line
Sheer wales. Strakes of thick stuff, in the top-sides of three deck ships, between the middle and upper deck ports.
Shelf-pieces. Running internally in a line with the deck, for the purpose of receiving the beam ends
Shift. When one but of a piece of timber or plank overlaunches the but of another piece, without either being reduced in length, for the purpose of strength, as timbers of the frame, plank of the bottom, &c
Shifting. The act of moving, &c.
Shift. A three masted vessel
Ship, (flag.) An Admiral's ship
Ship of the line. 74 gun ships and upwards
Ship yard. Where vessels are built; but H.M. yards are known as Dock Yards, which are Pembroke, Plymouth, Portsmouth, Chatham, Sheerness, Woolwich, and Deptford
Shivers or Shives. The wheels in blocks
Sholes. Oak plank put under the shores
Shores. Fir timber, supporting the ship
Shores, (dog.) Diagonal pieces of wood, placed forward, supporting the bilge-ways on the ground-ways, thereby preventing the ship from going off the slips
Shot locker. Around the well for the shot
Sided. The dimensions of timber the contrary way to which the mould is placed
Sills. The upper and lower parts of the framing of the ports
Sirmarks. Sundry lines on the ship's body, from which the bevellings are taken: see page 39
Skids. Beams resting on blocks, on which East country barges are built
Skid beams. In frigates, ships of the line, &c., raised over the main-deck, parallel to the quarter-deck and forecastle beams, for the purpose of stowing the boats, booms, &c on
Skylight. Frame work in the deck, to admit light into the cabin and gun-room
Smack, (barrack.) A Scotch Trade; also a small vessel
Snow. A name commonly given to brigs in the merchant service, whose fore and aft main-sail works upon a try-sail mast, attached to the main-mast
Snying. When the edge of a plank rounds upwards, as the planks in the bottom, round the bows, where the middle appears above a straight line
Sleepers. Crooked timber used inside, abaft
Slip. The place the ship is built on
Sloop. A small vessel with one mast
Sloop of war. A minor class vessel, frigate built, sometimes applicable to brigs, as brig sloops, and corvettes
Span-shackles. Bolts, driven through the decks, for fixing the ends of any thing in
Spar deck. The upper deck of a double-banked frigate, having no openings in the waist
Spars. Round timber for masts, &c.
Spikes. Iron nails, by which the decks, ribbands, &c., are fastened
Spindle. The perpendicular cylindrical bar of iron on which the capstan revolves; also the windlass on horizontal ones, at each extremity
Spirketting. Planks above the beams ends
Splinters. Slips of timber, plank, &c., forced out by shot
Splitting out. The act of removing the blocks, &c.
Spokes. The handles of the wheel
Spurs. Large pieces of timber, the lower ends fixed to the bilgeways, and upper ends bolted to the ship's bottom, for security in lunching
Square body. The midship sections
Square tuck. The after part of a ship's bottom
Standards. Large pieces of knee timbers, with one arm bolted upon deck, through the beams, the other through ships' sides, now superseded; also the upright spars around the ship when building, for stages, &c.
Starboard and larboard. Distinguishing the sides of the ship, from forward, the first is on the right hand, the other on the left
Steamer or steam vessel. A ship or boat, propelled forward by the force of steam, having paddles, boilers, machinery, &c., for the purpose
Steeler. The foremost and afermost plank in a strake, which drops short of the stem or stern-post
Steering wheel. That by which the tiller and rudder are worked
Steeve. The inclination of the bowsprit
Stem. The formost piece in uniting the bows
Stemson. A piece of timber on the apron
Steps. For the masts, capstans, &c.
Stern. The after part of the ship, of which there are three descriptions, viz: the square stern, as generally built - the pink stern, of ancient date, being extremely contracted, similar to H.M. ship Cambridge; and the round, or segmental stern, as now introduced into the Navy
Stern frame. That which is composed of post, transoms, &c.
Stiff. Opposite to crank, firm, &c.
Stocks. The slips blocks, &c.
Stools. The securities of the galleries
Stopper bolts. Rings driven in the deck, for the stoppers
Store ship. A government vessel, appropriated for carrying stores
String. A strake withinside, under the gunwale, answering the sheer strake outwards
Stuff. Square timber of different thicknesses
Supporters. Circular knees, under the cat-heads
Syphered. One edge of a plank lapped over the edge of another in such a manner that both planks make a plain surface
Sweeps. See page 31; also large oars, used in sloops, brigs, schooners, cutters, &c., to propel them along
Swims. The flat inclined extremities of East country barges
Tabling. The letting of one piece of timber into another, similar to hooking of planks, so that they cannot be pulled asunder lengthways.
Taffrail. The upper part of the stern, corresponding with the quarter pieces
Teach. The direction that any line, curve, &c. seems to point out
Term pieces, or terms. Pieces of carved work on each side of the taffrail upon the side stern timber, and extending down as low as the foot-rail of the balcony
Thick stuff. Sided timber, under one foot, and above four inches, in thickness
Tholls. Wooden pins in boats gunwales, for the oars to work in
Throat. The middle inside part of the compass, or knee timber
Thwarts, of a boat. The seats or benches
Tiers. Numbers of rows of guns -- also the place in the orlop where the cables are stowed
Tiller. The lever which turns the rudder
Timbers. A general name given to the pieces comprising the frame of the ship
Tonnage. The admeasurement of the ship
Top-sides. All above the main wales
Top-timbers. Those on the top sides
Top and But. The method of working English plank to good conversion, done by disposing of the top of every plank within six feet of the but end of the plank above or below it, letting every plank work as broad as it will, by which means only every other seam is a fair one
T. Plates. Under the channels, for the purpose of giving greater strength and support
Trail-boards. The carved work between the cheeks of the head
Transoms. Thwartship pieces of timber, &c. forming the buttocks
Transom knees. As sleepers
Transports. Private vessels hired by Government for carrying troops, stores, &c.
Transports, Naval. Government store ships
Treenails. Wooden bolts driven through the planks and timbers, holding all together
Trim. The working of any piece of timber or plank to its proper shape -- also the set of the ship on the water
Troop ship. A large class of vessel appropriated for carrying troops, usually 50's and 64's.
Tuck. The upper part of the buttock
Tuck rail. On the upper edge of the wing transom
Tumbling home. As falling home
Unship. Taking any thing out of its place
Upper works. Comprehending that portion of a ship above the load water line
Upset. To turn over, to remove any thing out of its place
Wake, (In the). Abreast
Wales. The thickest planks in the ship, and worked in the broadest part
Waist. That part of the top-side which is above the upper deck, between the main and fore drifts, in frigates, ships of the line, &c. hence designated deep waisted -- flush decked vessels are termed shallow waisted
Wall-sided. When a ship continues the breadth very low down and high up, having perpendicular futtocks
Ward-room. In ships of the line on the main deck -- the officers cabin
Water-ways. Planks of the decks which are wrought next to the timbers
Wedging up. Gaining security by driving wedges
Well. The enclosure of the pumps
Winch. A small cylindrical machine attached to masts or bits in small craft, for the purpose of heaving any thing of the hold -- warping, &c.
Windlass. A horizontal machine in merchant vessels and cutters, by which the anchor is hove up, and by which the ship rides
Wing transom. The uppermost transom in the stern frame
Wings. The spaces on the orlop, between the cable tiers and ship's sides
Winding. Any thing that twists
Within board. Inside
Without board. Outside
Wrought. Any thing worked
Yacht. A pleasure vessel
Yacht, Royal. A vessel expressly for His Majesty's use -- there are three or four yachts in the Navy
Yacht Royal (Club). Instituted by a number of Noblemen and Gentlemen -- His Majesty, Patron -- Lord Yarborough, Commodore -- certain privileges are attached -- Naval Architecture and Naval tactics are much encouraged, and proved extremely successful in the production of the Pantaloon, by Captain Symons, R.N.
Yawl. A small fishing vessel
Yoke. A board transversely fitted to a boat's rudder, to steer by, instead of a tiller.
N.B. It must be observed, in addition to the preceding technicalities, that the sea phraseology is inseparably connected with ship building, as regards ropes, gear, hoisting, &c, &c.
Bomb vessel. A small vessel, strongly built, for the purpose of carrying mortars, to bombard towns. Two vessels of this description (Hecla and Fury) were lately equipped for exploring the North Pole
Bum-boat. A boat for merchandize
Canoe. An Indian boat
Crane. A machine by which timber, &c., is hoisted up on wharfs, &c.
Diagonals. The several lines on the draughts, delineating the station of the harpings, &c., see page 38
Fire-ship. A vessel loaded with combustibles, and sent down amidst a fleet, which exploding, creates the greatest confusion and destruction
Galliot. A foreign vessel, with foremast, and small mizen-mast
Horns of the tiller. The pins at the extremity
Hulk. A vessel in harbour, to receive the crew of any other ship fitting out, &c.
Hulk, (sheer.) A vessel with a mast, spars, &c. for the purpose of getting in and out ships' masts
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Copyright © 1997 Lars Bruzelius.