BEAMS, are the large pieces of timber, which are laid across the ship; their ends are lodged on the clamps, and being bound by knees on the side, keep the ship to her breadth.

BOW, is the round part of the ship, forward. That on the right hand, with one's face forward, is called the Starboard, and that on the left the Larboard-bow; they both unite at the stem.

BREAST-HOOKS, are large knees fayed across the stem to both bows, into which they are bolted.

CARLINGS, are square pieces of timber, lying fore and aft from one beam to another, into which they are forced.

CATHEAD, is a large square piece of timber; one end of it is fastened upon the forecastle, the other end projects without the bow so far as to keep the anchor clear of the ship when it is heaving up by a tackle, the block of which is called the Cat-block: The rope which passes thro' the several shivers of the block, and extremity of the cathead, is called the Cat-fall.

CLAMPS, are thick planks, which support the ends of the beams.

COUNTER, The hollow part of the stern above the wing-transom is called the lower, and that part betwixt it and the lower part of the cabbin-lights is called the upper or second Counter.

DEAD WOOD, consists of large pieces of timber laid one upon another, upon the keel, afore and abaft, where the ship is so thin as not to admit of sufficient substance for the two half timbers, which are therefore scored into this dead wood. The half timbers are used when by reason of the sharpness of the floor, one piece of timber cannot be had which will make a floor-timber.

DECKS, are the same in a ship that floors are in a house, and are denominated, according to their heighth, lower, middle, and upper: Besides which there is a deck which covers the cabbin, and reaches from the stern to the main-mast; this is called the Quarter-deck. In some ships there is an apartment above the great cabbin, called the Round-house; the deck which covers it is called the Poop. Another deck covers the forecastle, which is an apartment in the fore-part of the ship, in which is the cook-room.

FAY, is to fitt two pieces of wood so as to join close together. The plank is said to fay to the timbers when it bears, or lies close to all the timbers.

HARPINS, are the fore-part of the wales which go round the bow and are fastened to the stem.

HAWSE-PIECES, are broad timbers in the bow of the ship, thro' which there are holes cut for the cables to pass.

HEAD, is some figure, often that of a lion, carved as an ornament for the fore-part of the ship. There is a large piece of timber fayed to the stem upon which the figure rests; this is called the knee of the head, and by reason of the great breadth at the upper part, it is composed of several pieces: It is let into the head, and fastened to the bow on each side by knees, called the cheeks of the head. The head is supported by rails, which extend from the crown of the figure to the cathead.

HEEL, The lower part of a mast, or any timber, is called the heel, and the upper part the head.

KEEL, is the principal piece of timber first laid upon the blocks, which supports the whole structure. When this cannot be had of a sufficient depth in one piece, there is a plank fastened to the bottom, called the False Keel, which serves likewise to save the bottom of the main keel.

KEELSON, is fayed over the floor-timbers, and bolted thro' them into the keel.

KNEES, are crooked pieces of timber. One leg or arm is bolted to the beams, and the other to the ship's side. They are either lodging or hanging. The hanging knees are fayed up and down, and the others fore and aft the side, and rest upon the clamps.

LIMBER-BOARDS, are short pieces of plank, fayed next to the keelson, which may be taken out to clear the limber-holes, that are left either below or above the floor-timbers, for a passage for the water to the pump.

RABBET. When a plank is to be fastened to any piece of timber, such as the stem or port, there is so much wood cut out of the piece as the plank is thick, which is called the Rabbet; and when the plank is let into this rabbet, it will be even with the outside of the piece, as at the after-end of the keel, and lower end of the stern-post.

RAILS, are narrow planks, generally of fir, upon which there is a moulding stuck. They are for ornament, and nailed across the stern above the wing-transom and counters, &c. They are likewise nailed upon several planks along the sides; one in particular is called the sheer-rail, which limits the heighth of the side from the forecastle to the quarter-deck, and runs aft to the stern, and forward to the cathead. The wales are nearly parallel to this.

ROTHER, is a piece of timber, or several pieces fastened together, and fitted to the stern-post, to which it is hung by irons, whereon it moves, and thereby the ship is steered.

SCANTLING, is the breadth or thickness of a piece of timber.

SCARPHS. When two pieces of timber are joined together, so that the end of the one goes over the end of the other, being tapered so that the one may be let into the other and become even, they are said to be scarphed; such are the keel-pieces. But when the ends of the two pieces are cut square and put together, they are said to butt to one another; and when another piece is laid upon, and fastened to both, as is the case in all the frame-timbers, this is called scarphing the timbers; and half the piece which fastens the two timbers together is reckoned the length of the scarph.

STEM, is that circular piece of timber where both the sides of the ship unite forward. The lower end of it is scarphed into the keel, and the bowsprit rests upon the upper end of it.

STEPS, are large pieces of timber fayed across the keelson, into which the heels of the masts are fitted.

STERN, is the after-part of the ship, in which are all the cabbin-lights. It likewise includes the stern-frame, which consists of the stern-post, transoms, and fashion-pieces, all fastened together.

STERN-POST, is that strait piece of timber at the after-end of the ship, which unites both the sides. The heel of it is tenanted into the keel, and the wing-transom fastened at the head of it.

TIMBERS, in a ship, are as the ribs in the body, and serve to support the sides, the planks being all fastened to them; the two aftermost are called Fashion-pieces; they support the ends of transoms. The two timbers, forward, at the cathead, are called Knuckle-timbers. [For the names of the other timbers, see Chap. III. Sect. 3. Part II.]

TUCK-square, is, when the heels of the fashion-pieces are let in upon the post, at which place the heighth of the tuck is fixed.

WALES, are planks, thicker than the rest, brought about the outside of the ship, in the wake of the decks.

Mungo Murray: A Treatise on Ship-building and Navigation in three parts wherein the Theory, Practice, and Application of all the necessary Instruments are perspicuously handled. ...
A. Millar, London, 1765. pp 189-192.

Transcribed by Lars Bruzelius

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