The Fouling and Corrosion of Iron Ships: Their Causes and Means of Prevention, with Mode of Application to the Existing Iron-Clads.



The first record the author can find of a boat or floating-vessel made of metal in place of wood is that of one built in 1787, by Mr. John Wilkinson, of Broseley, in Shropshire, who employed iron for this purpose.

This boat or vessel was 70' long, 6' 8½" wide, drew between 8" and 9" water, and carried 32 tons of goods; was built at Willey, in Shropshire, and used on the Severn. It is most probable that she was a canal barge; but whatever she may have been, there can be but little doubt that she was the first iron vessel.

Another small boat, probably of a similar character, was built by Wilkinson soon after, which he employed to carry peat on the canal from the moors where it was cut.

In the same year, a vessel with the bottom constructed entirely of copper, without any plank whatever, was built; and another of a similar description in 1789.

In the year 1794, Brigadier-General Sir Samuel Bentham, K.S.G., constructed a small boat of copper, which he exhibited on the Thames, and also at Queen Square Place, Westminster.

In 1809, Richard Trevithick, the well-known engineer, and Robert Dickinson, took a patent, No. 3231, for several inventions embodying the use of wrought-iron plates. First, they described a movable caisson, or floating dock, made of this material. The internal figure resembled that of a boat. It had a flange six feet wide, extending horizontally outwards from the upper edge, for the workmen to stand upon, and also to strengthen the caisson; and it was surrounded by an air-chamber, or by air-chambers, consisting of wrought-iron plates, riveted together so as to form a semicylindrical hollow protuberance, extending along the sides of the caisson horizontally. Water was to be admitted into it until it was wholly immersed; and then, when hauled under the bottom of the ship, the water was to be pumped out.

Second, they described iron ships — "ships of war, East-Indiamen, and other large decked vessels." The decks as well as the sides of such ships were to be of plates of wrought iron, "riveted, or joined by screws."

Third, they proposed to make "masts, bowsprits, yards, and booms of wrought iron, out of plates riveted or screwed together in hollow or tubular forms. These masts being hollow tubes, the upper masts may be made to slide into the lower mast."

In 1810, Sir Samuel Bentham proposed to the British Government the introduction of iron for shipbuilding, on account of the increasing scarcity of timber; but the Admiralty refused to listen to Ins proposal. A guardship was just then about to be built for Chatham, and be endeavoured to get it built of iron; and as it would thus be constantly under the observation of the dockyard officials, the influence of that metal on the compass, as well as other objections, could be ascertained; but the Admiralty would not give their consent, and from this period the introduction of iron for shipbuilding was abandoned to private enterprise, and has received but little development from Government.

In 1815, Mr. Thomas Jevons, of Liverpool, built a small iron pleasure-boat, which he launched on the Mersey; and this seems to have been the first iron boat used in salt water. This boat was built by Mr. Joshua Horton, of Tipton, near Birmingham, and fitted up in Liverpool by Messrs. Hunter and Humble.

In 1818, Sir John Robison had an iron vessel (which he had designed in 1816) built for the passenger-traffic on the Forth and Clyde Canal, by Mr. Thomas Wilson, at Faskine, on the Monkland Canal, some six miles from Glasgow. She was called the "Vulcan," and was 61'x 11' × 4' 6"; was flush or carvel built; had bulkheads with diagonal stringers; the frames were made from flat bar-iron, worked into the required shape in a cast-iron grooved block, and were placed 2' apart. The plates were 2' broad,. and put on vertically; they butted on each frame, and there were consequently two rows of rivets in each frame. The keel was formed of two plates, 3/4" × 12", placed side by side in a vertical position, reaching to the top of the floors. There was a "doubling strake" round the gunwale, made of 1" plate, 13" wide. This plate was turned into angle-iron 9" × 4", which gave great strength to the hull longitudinally, and supported the wooden stringer which ran fore and aft on each side. She had an iron lower mast, which was used as a chimney for the cabin-stove in winter, and did duty as a ventilator for the cabin in the summer, and the sides of the cabins were of glass.

It is stated that this boat was in existence in 1865.

In 1820, the "Aaron Manby," iron steamboat, was commenced at the Horseley Iron Works, and completed in 1821. She was sent up to London in parts, and put together in the Surrey Canal Dock, where she took in a cargo of linseed and iron castings, and, under the command of the late Admiral Sir Charles (then Captain) Napier, M.P., with Mr. Charles Manby (so long Secretary of the Institute of Civil Engineers) as chief engineer, went from London direct to the Port Royal at Paris without unloading any portion of her cargo.

In 1825, the late Mr. John Grantham, of Liverpool, had a small iron steamer, of 10 nominal horse-power, built by the Horseley Iron Company, which he placed on the Shannon. The vessel was commenced in 1824, was put together in Liverpool, and sent across to Lough Derg.

In 1827, Mr. David Napier built the "Anglia" steamer, which had an iron bottom, and wooden sides above water, to ply on Loch Eich. She was afterwards called the "James Gallacher," and plied on the Clyde. Her dimensions were as follows: Length, 62' 8"; breadth, 13' 0"; depth, 4' 6"; gross tonnage, 49 36/94 tons.

In the year 1829, the late Mr. William Gravatt, C.E., designed, and had constructed bythe late firm of Fenton and Murray, of Leeds, an iron paddle steamboat, with a horizontal tubular locomotive boiler, the paddle-shaft being placed in front of the smoke-box, against which the plummer-blocks were bolted. The lines of this boat were taken from a fine gig built by Roberts, boat-builder, of Lambeth. This is believed to have been the first steamboat in which a tubular boiler was used.

In 1829-30, Mr. Neilson, of Glasgow, altered an old iron passageboat of the Forth and Clyde Canal Company, the "Cyclops," built in 1825, into a stern-wheel boat on the American plan, with a single engine of 14 nominal horse-power, and a single paddlewheel; and though but ill adapted to give the required results, the boat proved so satisfactory that a second was built for them by Mr. Neilson.

In October, 1829, the first iron vessel built on the Mersey was launched by the well-known firm of Messrs. William Laird and Sons (the late Mr. William Laird and the present Mr. John Laird, M.P.). This vessel was 60 ft. long by 13 ft. beam, and 60 tons measurement. In the year 1831, two others of a similar size were built by the same firm.

In the same year, the firm (then known as McGregor Laird and Co., consisting of Mr. William Laird, the late Mr. Fawcett, and the late Mr. McGregor Laird, the African traveller) built and launched the steamer "Elburka," of 70 ft. in length, 13 ft. beam, and 15 horse-power, which went out with the late Mr. McGregor Laird, in 1832, as one of the Niger Expedition. This was the first iron vessel that ever made an ocean voyage.

In the year 1833 they built the "Lady Lansdowne" steamer, which was 130 ft. long, 17 ft. wide = 148 tons, and had engines of 80 horse-power; and the "John Randolph," of 110 ft. long, 22 ft. wide = 249 tons, and had engines of 60 horse-power.

In the year 1834 they built the "Garryowen," of 130 ft. long, 21 ft. 6 in. wide = 263 tons, with engines of 80 horse-power; the "Euphrates," of 105 ft. long, 19 ft. wide = 179 tons, with engines of 50 horse-power; and the "Tigris," of 90 ft. long, 16 ft. wide = 109 tons, with engines of 20 horse-power.

The "Lady Lansdowne" was built for Ireland, and was sent out to Lough Derg in pieces-put together, finished, and launched there.

The "John Randolph" was for the United States, and was sent out in pieces to Savannah-put together, completed, and launched there; and this is stated to be the first iron steamer ever used in America, and she was still in existence up to the period of the late war, in good working order.

The "Garryowen" was completed and launched at the works at Birkenhead, and steamed round to the Lower Shannon, where she continued at work until 1866, when she was sold to go to the coast of Africa, after being carefully examined, and found in very good order, although she had gone through thirty-two years' hard work.

The "Euphrates" and "Tigris" were shipped in pieces by vessel to Beyrout, and with engines and boilers transported with great difficulty across the desert by General Chesney and the men of the Euphrates Expedition, and put together and completed on the Euphrates by men sent out by the firm. With the facilities of the present day, this would be a comparatively easy undertaking, but at the period it was carried out was certainly an arduous and novel feat.

The "Tigris" was lost in a hurricane on the river; and the "Euphrates," after working for many years as a steamer, had her engines and boiler taken out, which were put into another vessel, and her hull was used as a lighter on the river Indus.

All these early vessels were regularly built and framed like a wooden vessel, were very strong, and would have been fit to sail to any part of the world; and the "Lady Lansdowne" and "Garryowen" were capable of putting to sea under any circumstances.

In 1836, they built the "Eliza Price," to ply between Liverpool and Birkenhead, which was 85' 8" × 17' 9" × 7' 9"=88 tons, with engines of 5 4 horse-power.

In 1839-40, they constructed for the Admiralty the "Dover," used to carry the mails between Dover and Calais. She was 110' 5" × 21' 0" × 10' 6", and when last heard of, a year or two ago, was on the coast of Africa, and in good order.

In the year 1830, Dr. William Fairbairn, in conjunction with his partner Mr. Lillie, built at Manchester the iron paddle-boat "Lord Dundas," for use on the Forth and Clyde Canal. The hull was 68'x 11' 6" × 4' 6", built of light angle and T iron, with plates 1/10 thick, and had engines of 10 nominal horse-power, working a paddle-wheel placed in the centre of the boat, in a wheel trough extending the whole length of the hull. The light draught of this boat was 16", and she could accommodate 100 to 150 passengers. Dr. Fairbairn informs the author that he made the voyage from Liverpool to Glasgow in her; and she proved so successful that his firm built eight more of a larger size within the next two or three years for Scotch canals; two passenger-boats with 40 nominal horse-power engines for the Humber; and two for the lakes of Zurich and Wallenstadt in Switzerland, which, after being tried, were taken to pieces and sent out.

In 1831, Dr. Fairbairn built the "Manchester," of 70' 0" × 15' 0" × 8' 0", with engines of 30 horse-power; in 1832, "La Reine des Beiges," of 75' 0" × 14' 0" × 6' 0", with engines of 24 horse-power, which went from Liverpool to Ostend. In 1833, he built the "Minerva," of 98' 0" × 15' 6" × 7' 0", with 40 horse-power; which boat was sent in pieces to Hull, put together, and made the voyage to Rotterdam in thirty-three hours, and then steamed up to the Rhine Falls, where she was again taken to pieces and carried overland to Lake Zurich.

The difficulties which were found to exist in an inland town like Manchester for the construction of iron vessels led to the removal of this branch of the business to London in the years 1834-5, where, at the works, Millwall, Poplar, Dr. Fairbairn constructed upwards of eighty vessels of various sizes, including the "Pottinger," of 1250 tons and 450 nominal horse-power, for the Peninsular and Oriental Company; the "Megæra" and other vessels for the British Government, and many others; thus introducing iron shipbuilding on the river Thames ; and in 1848 he retired from this branch of his business.

In 1835-6, the well-known firm of Messrs. Ditchburn and Mare commenced iron shipbuilding on the Thames, which they carried on for many years in Bow Creek, the site of the present Thames Iron Works, and at a later period were followed by Messrs. David Napier, Samuda Bros., M. and H. L. Wigram, Miller and Ravenhill, Robinsons and Russell (afterwards the well-known firm of J. Scott Russell and Co., who built the "Great Eastern," and whose premises included those formerly occupied by Messrs. Fairbairn and Napier), Joyce, Dudgeons, Rennie, and others.

In 1831, an iron steamer called the "Fairy Queen" was built at Glasgow by John Neilson, of Black Quarry and Oak Bank, which was taken from the building-yard to the Clyde on a truck, and launched broadside on into the river, in a more successful manner than was the case with the "Great Eastern" at a later period on the Thames. Her dimensions were as follows:— Length, 95'2"; breadth, 11' 5"; depth, 8' 2"; 39 75/94 tons register. In 1834 she was lengthened.

In 1832-3, Messrs. Thomas Wingate and Co., of Whiteinch, near Glasgow, built at Springfield an iron lighter, which was taken to Port Eglinton, and launched in the Paisley Canal. This firm, in the year 1837, put a pair of side lever engines, with 60"x 6' stroke cylinders, into the wooden steamer "Sirius," of 700 tons ; the first steamer that ever crossed the Atlantic.

In 1834, Mr. David Napier built the iron steamer "Kilmun," of 119' 7" × 15' 5" × 8' 5" = 1-I1 tons, with engines of 70 horsepower, which plied between Glasgow and Kilmun.

In the same year, the "Swan," of 10 horse-power, with engines by James Gray, of Glasgow, was built by Jolln Neilson, to ply between Londonderry and Stratlibane.

In 1835, Mr. David Napier built the "Loch Lomond," to ply on the loch of that name. She was 92' 9" × 15' 1" × 7' 0" = 76 tons; with engines of 40 horse-power.

In the same year, Messrs. Tod and McGregor built the"Vale of Leven," to ply between Glasgow, Dumbarton, and Greenock. She was 93' 1" × 16' 5" × 7' 6" = 121 tons, with engines of 51 horsepower. The "La Plata," with two horizontal engines of 10 horsepower, was this year built at Johnstone, and engined by Tod and McGregor.

In 1836, Mr. John Neilson built the "Maid of Claro," for Yarmouth. She was 56' 1" × 9' 8" × 7' 1" = 35 tons.

In the same year, Messrs. T. Wingate and Co. built the "British Queen," to ply between Glasgow and Garelochhead. She was 125' 4" × 16 5" × 8' 5" = 144 70/100 tons, with steeple engines of 90 horse-power.

Messrs. Tod and McGre,,or also built in this year the "Royal Tar," to ply between the same places, and the "Express" also, which plied to Kilmun besides. The "Royal Tar" was 125' 7" × 16' 6" × 8' 8" = 141 tons, with engines of 80 horse-power; and the "Express" was 130' 4" × 16' 4" × 8' 5" = 150 tons, with engines of 94 horse-power. They also at the same time built the "Shamrock," of 116' 1" × 16' 3" × 9' 2" = 160 tons, with engines of 77 horse-power, to ply between Waterford and New Ross; and Mr. John Neilson built the "Egremont," of 87' 7" × 17' 4" × 8' 2" = 129 tons, with engines of 70 horse-power.

In 1837, Messrs. Tod and McGregor built the "Benledi," to ply between Leith and Dundee. She was 124' 5" × 15' 9" × 8' 6" = 102 tons register, with engines of 77 horse-power; and the "Rothsay Castle," to ply between Glasgow and Rothsay. This vessel was 133' 8" × 17' 0" × 8' 6" = 180 tons, with engines of 90 horse-power.

In the same year, Messrs. T. Wingate & Co. built the "Loch Lomond," for Dumbarton. She was 101' 8" × 16' 5' × 8' 5" = 77 43/100 tons register, and had steeple engines of 52 horse-power.

In 1840 this vessel was sold to some parties in Hamburgh, and used to ply on the Rhine. In the same year they built the "Prince Albert," for Liverpool, which was 107' 6" × 16' 5" × 8' 1" = 122 tons, with engines of 60 horse-power.

Messrs. Smith and Rodger the same year constructed a double cigar-ship called the "Victoria," which consisted of two cigars, 92' 8" × 7'0", set side by side, and a hurricane deck, with a paddlewheel in the centre propelled by engines of 75 horse-power.

In 1838, they built the "Plenipo," to ply between Glasgow and Kilmun. She was 118' 5" × 15' 7" × 7' 2" = 113 tons, and had steeple engines of 65 horse-power.

_Messrs. Tod and McGregor in this year built the "Royal Sovereign," to ply between Glasgow and Liverpool. She was 177' 5" × 21' 2" × 12' 1" = 446 tons, and had engines of 220 horse-power.

After this date, iron paddle-steamers were built in rapid succession; but screws did not come into general use as cargo-boats till after 1845.

So far as the author can find, transverse water-tight iron bulkheads in iron steamships were introduced by the late Mr. Charles Wye Williams, who first employed them in the "Garryowen," iron steamer, in (it is said) the year 1833-4. Transverse bulkheads made water-tight in wooden ships were introduced in this country by Captain Shanks, about the year 1790, in a vessel called the "Trial," and used by Sir Samuel Bentham, K.S.G., in his seven experimental vessels designed in 1794. Longitudinal bulkheads were introduced by Sir Samuel.

In 1838, a Mr. Wheelwright, of Regent Street, London, brought forward the "longitudinal" system of construction, which has since been brought to such perfection by Mr. Scott Russell in the "Great Eastern," and numerous other vessels designed and constructed by him before and since, and has given very satisfactory results in practice. This is manifestly the proper way of making a ship of great strength, instead of using the ordinary vertical angle, iron frames which give no strength in a longitudinal direction. Mr. Wheelwright published a small pamphlet on this plan in 1838, which was accompanied by plans and sections, and it may be seen in the library of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

The first iron sailing-vessel built in Liverpool was the shiprigged vessel "Ironsides," of 218 tons register, which was built by Messrs. Jackson and Gordon, for Messrs. Watson Bros., and launched in October, 1838.

In 1840, Messrs T. Wingate and Co. built the first iron sailingvessel constructed in Scotland. She was called the "Henrietta," and was 57' 8" long × 16' 5" beam, × 7' 4" deep, = 61j 68/100 tons.

In 1840-2, Messrs, R. Saunderson and Co. built the "Vulcan," of 63' 0" × 14' 4" × 9' 0", and the "Cygnet," of 60' 4" × 18' 0" × 10' 1", which were employed in the trade from Leith to Rotterdam; and in 1841, Messrs. Anderson and Gilmore, of Govan, built the "Waterloo," of 78' 8" × 20' 0" × 9' 0", which traded from the Clyde to the West Indies.

In the year 1839-40, the first iron steamer for the Royal Navy, the "Dover," was built by Messrs. Laird, of Birkenhead; and about 1843, the British Government began to extend their employment of this material.

In 1841, the "Great Britain," iron-screw steamer, of 3500 tons and 1000 nominal horse-power, was commenced at Bristol. Her dimensions are as follows:-Length over all, 320'; beam, 51'; depth, 31'4"; and the lines were designed by Mr. Paterson, of Bristol. This vessel was launched in 1843, after a great expense and trouble in enlarging dock-gates, &c., to get her through (reminding one of the story of Robinson Crusoe and his "big boat"), had been got over; she made several voyages to America, and having been run ashore on the coast of Ireland, where she passed through the storms of a very severe winter, was finally got off, taken to Liverpool, and having undergone alterations in engines, boilers, and fittings, was placed on the Australian trade, where she still remains, and is known as one of the most regular and successful ships in that employment.

In 1854, the construction of the "Great Eastern," paddle and screw combined, was commenced at Millwall, London, by Messrs. J. Scott Russell and Co. The length of this vessel on deck is 692' 0", her beam 82' 6", and depth 58'; tonnage, B.M., =24,360 tons; paddle engines, 1.000 nominal horse-power; screw engines, 1600 nominal horse-power. The lines of this vessel were designed by Mr. Scott Russell, and the ideas on which a ship to fulfil the conditions proposed to be accomplished by the company, which was got up to construct her, were promulgated before 1838 by a Mr. Holmes, and in 1840 by Lieut. Radford, R.N., the latter of whom published a small work on the subject, in which nearly all the advantages and reasons for the construction of such vessels as the "Great Eastern," which were brought forward at a later period, were fully entered into.

It is recorded that when Mr. Holmes first broached this subject at the Admiralty and elsewhere, they laughed at the idea, and begged him to desist from pursuing so futile a plan.

The "Great Eastern" was built "broadside on," with her bow down the river, and the first attempt at launching her was made by Mr. I. K. Brunel, the company's engineer, on a new plan invented by him, on the 3rd November, 1857, but resulted in a total failure. The reason of this was, that instead of employing greased wooden ways, the experiment was persisted in of launching on iron rails, the cradles having bars of iron placed transversely to the longitudinal Great Western rails under them. The great friction and bite of the iron on iron, and a deficiency of bearing surface on the ways when the ship had moved from the thickly piled surface on which she had been built, brought everything to a dead lock; and it was only by the employment of some twentytwo of the most powerful hydraulic rams or presses which could be obtained, including those used to lift the Britannia tubular bridge, that the ship was pushed by main force into the river and floated off on the 31st January, 1858, after many weeks' almost constant exertions, both night and day, and the expenditure of an unknown number of thousands of pounds.

It is worthy of note that, although this huge vessel remained on the ways with some 140 feet at each end hanging in the air, and totally unsupported for a period of three months all but three days, it was found, when her sheer was tried after she was afloat, that the change in her length of 692' 0" could be expressed by the fraction of an inch! It is to be regretted that the want of proper management should have hitherto prevented the capabilities of this vessel from having been properly and thoroughly developed, but so far it would seem that, for weights moved, and power or force expended in doing it, at the same speed as other vessels of a large class, she will bear a very favorable comparison; and the success attending the laying of the Atlantic Telegraph cable by her means is sufficient almost to have justified her construction specially for this purpose.

In 1854-5-6, during the war with Russia, the British Government built several wooden floating batteries of 1469 to 2000 tons, cased or plated with rolled iron four inches thick, and provided with high-pressure engines of 150 to 200 nominal horse-power, driving the screw propeller. These vessels were introduced by the Emperor of the French.

In 1859 the first iron ship, plated with rolled iron 4'," thick, the "Warrior," of 6038 tons, and 1250 nominal horse-power, was laid down by the British Government, and launched in 1861. Her length is 380'; beam, 58'; depth, 42'.

Since this period the iron-built iron-plated vessels have been increased in size, some being 6621 tons and 1350 nominal horsepower, with a length of 400 ft. and a breadth of 59 ft., with armour 5½" in thickness, such as the "Minotaur," the "Agincourt," and "Northumberland."

Besides these are numerous smaller vessels of 3700 tons, down to vessels of 700, both sizes carrying 4½" armour plates; and the "Hercules," "Monarch," "Captain," and "Penelope," will have armour plates of 8" and 6" in thickness.

It is said that designs are now prepared for iron vessels of 10,000 tons, with 62 guns on two decks, and iron armour of 5½" thick, in which no teak or wood backing is to be used, and their length is to be over 400 ft.

In the year 1838 the Committee of Lloyd's Register classed the first iron vessel that had ever been guaranteed as "fit for the safe conveyance of dry and perishable cargoes." "This barque was appropriately named the 'Ironsides;' she was 271 tons register, was built at Liverpool by -Messrs. Jackson and Gordon, for Messrs. Cairns and Co. She was launched on 17th October, 1838, and was built of angle iron and plate iron, much in the same manner as iron ships are now built. She performed her first voyage to Rio de Janeiro and back without damaging any cargo. She was classed by the Committee of Lloyd's Register, after careful consideration, on the loth November, 1838, as 'built of iron,' with no letter. From this date until 1844 the Committee of the Register Book continued to class iron ships by the designation 'built of iron,' but with no letter."

From 1814 to 1804 the Committee improved the classification by marking them A 1, "built of iron," but this character was limited to six years. However, before the termination of this six years' classification the number of iron ships had so increased, and the demands for some kind of higher class based on admitted rules was so general, that the Committee of Lloyd's Register considered it necessary to form a code of rules for their own guidance and for that of the builders of iron ships; but having in vain solicited the assistance and concurrence of the iron shipbuilders throughout the country to form such rules, they in 1804 appointed a select committee, composed of members of their board more conversant with shipbuilding, who, with the assistance of their own surveyors (by collecting the scantlings of iron ships already classed), compiled their celebrated 'Rules and Tables of Scantlings' for ships of six, nine, and twelve years' grade, and which, when confirmed by the general committee, was prefaced as follows: "Considering that iron shipbuilding is yet in its infancy, and that there are no well-understood general rules for building iron ships, the committee have not deemed it desirable to frame a scheme compelling the adoption of a particular form or mode of construction, but that certain general requirements should be put forward haying for their basis thickness of plates and substance of frame, showing a minimum in each particular to entitle ships to the character A for a period of years, subject, however, to certain periodical surveys, and also to a continuation of such character should their state and condition justify it on subsequent examination."

Although the mode of constructing iron ships primarily intended by these rules is the original and ordinary one of vertical frames and longitudinal plating, the committee do not hesitate to admit into the Register Book, and into the same classes, vessels otherwise constructed, if of equal strength, and have classed ships with longitudinal frames or with diagonal frames, and many with double or cellular bottoms for water ballast, &c.

Thus, by wise and practical rules, administered with evenhanded justice and impartiality, has this important society striven to assist the shipbuilders and shipowners of this country to improve the merchant shipping of Great Britain and her colonies, and are reaping a well-merited reward in the general improvement of the structure of ships, and in the increasing confidence reposed in them by all parties interested in shipping, having never had at any time so many vessels building in conformity to their rules, under the special supervision of their surveyors, as at the present moment.

The endeavours of this committee have been directed to carry into effect as far as possible a uniform system of construction, which shall, in all essential points, secure strength of hull, wise disposition of material for economy, provisions for the safety of life and property, and durability; to encourage and not to retard the introduction into naval architecture and shipbuilding of every real improvement in the mechanical structure of ships that may better adapt them to the special object they may have in view. The rules allow the classification of a ship of good material, of sound workmanship, and of skilful design, to take rank according to her intrinsic qualities, in whatever manner those good qualities may have been achieved.

The author begs to return his best thanks to Dr. Fairbairn for the valuable information he has afforded him regarding the origin of iron shipbuilding on the Thames; to Messrs. Laird Brothers, John Laird, Esq., M.P., and Mr. C.B. Bean, of the 'Liverpool Albion,' for the same respecting the town of Liverpool; and to Messrs. T. Wingate and Co., engineers and iron shipbuilders, of Whiteinch, near Glasgow, for that relating to the Clyde.

To his applications for information respecting iron ships on the Tyne and the east coast, the author has not received any replies, and has been unable to collect any particulars on this part of the subject.

In conclusion, he would say that he will be glad to receive authentic information, facts, and dates, relating to the early history of iron ships and boats, for use in future editions, and will esteem it as a favour if any of his readers who can, will kindly take the trouble to supply him with such information as they may possess or obtain on the subject.

Charles F.T. Young: The Fouling and Corrosion of Iron Ships: Their Causes and Means of Prevention, with Mode of Application to the Existing Iron-Clads.
The London Drawing Association, London, 1867. pp 36-49.

Transcribed by Lars Bruzelius.

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